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Table 1 Current qualified and proposed kidney injury biomarkers

From: Sex differences in kidney gene expression during the life cycle of F344 rats

Kidney biomarker a Qualified Kidney injury location Sex bias Maximum fold-change sex difference Age of largest sex difference (weeks)
Kim-1 (Havcr1) Yes Prox Tub F > M 23.5 8
TFF3 (Tff3) Yes Prox Tub M > F 9.7 21
NGAL (Lcn2) Yes Prox, Dist Tub M > F 3.7 78
Osteopontin (Spp1) Yes Prox, Dist Tub, Lp Hnle F > M 2.7 8
Clusterin (Clu) Yes Prox, Dist Tub M > F 2 104
GST-α (Gsta2) Yes Prox Tub No sex difference - -
Fetuin-A (Ahsg) No Prox Tub M > F 600 2
HGF (Hgf) No Prox Tub F > M 2.4 2
GST-μ (Gstm1) No Dist Tub M > F 2.1 21
Interleukin-18 (Il-18) No Prox Tub M > F 1.5 104
GST-π (Gstp1) No Dist Tub No sex difference - -
NHE3 (Slc9a3r2) No Prox Tub, Lp Hnle No sex difference - -
Liver-type FABP (Fabp1) No Dist Tub No sex difference - -
CYR-61 (Cyr-61) No Prox Tub No sex difference - -
Heart-type FABP (Fabp3) No Dist Tub No sex difference - -
NAG (Hexb) No Prox Tub No sex difference - -
Netrin-1 (Ntn1) No Prox Tub No sex difference - -
  1. Prox Tub proximal tubules, Dist Tub distal tubules, Lp Hnle loop of Henle.
  2. aBiomarkers are referenced by their most common referenced human gene name followed by the official rat gene symbol in parentheses.