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Table 1 Epigenetic modifications associated with stress

From: Sex, stress, and epigenetics: regulation of behavior in animal models of mood disorders

Stressor Sex Behavioral Physiological Epigenetic modifications
   effects effects  
Paternal Stress Male and female · Pro-depressant behavior in FST (both sexes) [53] · Increased basal CORT (males) [53] · Hypothesized but not examined.
   · Decreased sucrose preference (males) [53] · Decreased VEGF (males) [53]  
   · Increased anxiety like behavior (both sexes) [53]   
   · Increased locomotor activity (males) [53]   
   · Increased social avoidance (males) [53]   
Gestational stress (PND 1-7) Male and female · Pro-depressant behavior in TST (males F1 [46] and F2 generation [32]) · Increased CORT response to stress (males-F1) [46] · Decreased methylation of CRF promoter region [46]
   · Pro-depressant behavior in FST [46] (males) · Increased CRF expression in central amygdala [46] · Increased methylation in GR promoter region [46]
   · Altered navigation strategy for Barnes maze [48] · Decreased GR in regions of hippocampus [46] · Dysmasculinzed HDAC expression [32]
Early life stress (extended separation) Male and female · Pro-depressant behavior in FST [64] · Increased HPA activity [64] · Hypomethylation of Avp in hypothalamus. [64]
   · Decreased inhibitory avoidance [64] · Decreased neurogenesis [67] · Decreased MeCP2 binding in Avp enhancer [64]
   · Decreased spatial learning [65]   · Hypermethylation of Avp in hippocampus (males) [70]
     · Hypomethylation of NR4a1 in hippocampus (C57BL/6 males) [70]
Repeated Social defeat stress Male · Social avoidance [47] · Changes in dendritic spine morphology in NAc [47] · Dnmt 3a expression increased in NAc [47]
   · Decreased sucrose preference [54] · Increased CRF expression in PVN of susceptible mice [22] · Over expression of Dnmt 3a induced pro-depressant behaviors [47]
   · Increased anxiety [54] · Decreased Bdnf in hippocampus [74] · Blocking DNA methylation was antidepressant [47]
   · Alterations in metabolic function [54]   · Decreased methylation of the CRF promoter in PVN [22]
     · Increased repressive histone marks on BDNF promoters [74]
Sub chronic variable stress Male and female · Decreased sucrose preference (females) [56] · Increased basal CORT (females) [56] · Dnmt 3a, 3b and Dnmt1 expression increased in NAc [56]
   · Pro-depressant behavior in Splash test (females) [56]   · Altered in transcription for MBD proteins [56]
   · Decreased latency to eat in a novel environment (females) [56]   · Transcriptional and behavioral effects blocked by removal of Dnmt 3a (females) [56]
   · Pro-depressant behavior in FST (females) [56, 57]