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Table 5 Summary of the proposed role of HNF4α and pituitary hormone in developmental changes in liver gene expression

From: Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood

  Developmental change Male liver (3 wk to 8 wk) Female liver (3 wk to 8 wk)
Adult male-specific genes Up HNF4α (+)
Pituitary hormone (+)
HNF4α (+)
  Down No regulation HNF4α (-)
Adult female-specific genes Up No regulation HNF4α (+)
Pituitary hormone (+)
  Down HNF4α (-)
Pituitary hormone (-)
No regulation
Adult sex-independent genes Up HNF4α (+)
Pituitary hormone (-)
HNF4α (+)
Pituitary hormone (+, -)
  Down HNF4α (-) HNF4α (-)
  1. This table summarizes the findings presented in Table 2, Table 3, and Additional files 6A-B. A plus sign indicates positive regulation and a minus sign indicates negative regulation. In male liver, HNF4α and pituitary hormone positively regulate male-specific genes that are up regulated from 3 to 8 wk; both factors also negatively regulate female-specific genes that are down regulated from 3 to 8 wk. In female liver, HNF4α positively regulates developmentally up regulated male-specific and female-specific genes, while negatively regulating developmentally down regulated male-specific genes. HNF4α and pituitary hormone exhibited similar patterns of regulation of sex-independent genes in male as in female liver, except that pituitary hormone showed both positive regulation and negative regulation of the developmentally up regulated sex-independent genes in female liver only