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Table 3 Identified gaps in sex/gender differences in knee OA

From: Neural and psychosocial contributions to sex differences in knee osteoarthritic pain

Gaps related to peripheral nervous system
Gap 1 Are there sex differences in nociceptor innervation of the OA joint?
Gap 2 Do sex hormones modify knee joint nociceptor activity?
Gap 3 Do nociceptors innervating the OA joint respond differently to inflammatory stimuli between the sexes?
Gap 4 Does peripheral opioid peptide and receptor upregulation after knee OA differ between the sexes?
Gaps related to the central nervous system  
Gap 5 Are there sex differences in processing of nociceptive information from knee in the central nervous system in the healthy or diseased knee?
Gap 6 Are there sex differences in brain activation patterns associated with knee OA pain?
Gap 7 Do sex hormones modulate central neuronal activity associated with nociception in the healthy or diseased knee?
Gap 8 Are there sex differences in OA patients for measures of temporal summation (central excitability) and conditioned-pain modulation (central inhibition)?
Gaps related to psychosocial factors  
Gap 9 Are there sex differences in psychosocial variables in OA such as depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, and fear of pain?
Gaps that encompass all factors  
Gap 10 Are different pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies needed to address treatment of adverse psychosocial variables between sexes?
Gap 11 Might effective pain management strategies to reduce pain in OA differ between women and men?
Gap 12 What is the influence of age on sex differences?