Treatment of infected mice with TLR 2 or 4 agonist effects survival. Treatment of male mice with PAM3CSK4 at the time of infection results in better survival (p=0.0261) than those given PBS or LPS which have no difference in survival (Figure 6A). Treatment of female mice with either agonist at the time of infection does not alter survival (Figure 6B). Administration of LPS to female mice on D3 p.i. results in 60% mortality compared to 0% mortality seen with PBS controls (p=0.0046) (Figure 6C). Male mice treated with LPS at Day 3 had 100% mortality (data not shown). Numbers of mice used in these experiments were as follows: Male PBS=10, PAM=9, LPS=16; Female PBS=9, PAM=5, LPS=17.