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Figure 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 1

From: Sex differences in human adipose tissues – the biology of pear shape

Figure 1

Simplified overview of adipocyte metabolism. After a meal, triglycerides (TG) packaged into chylomicrons are transported to the adipocytes. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) made in the adipocyte is secreted to the capillary endothelium were it cleaves TG to fatty acids (FA) which are in turn taken up by the adipocyte and esterified to a backbone of alpha-glycerophosphate (which is mainly derived from glucose). Insulin stimulates this process, mainly by stimulating glucose uptake. Stored TG can be mobilized after hydrolysis by lipases (adipose tissue triglyceride lipase - ATGL and hormone sensitive lipase - HSL). The process of lipolysis is stimulated by catecholamines and inhibited by insulin. Gluteo-femoral adipocytes of women are more efficient in storing FA via the direct pathway and also show higher LPL activity. See text for details.

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