Verification of cardiovascular disease genes in infected males. Using separate experiments from the one used for the microarray, gene changes in Table 3 were verified by ELISA or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) between coxsackievirus B3 - infected males (V-M) and infected females (V-F). Secreted phospolipase A2 (PLA2) was verified in the spleen at (A) 48 h post infection (pi) by ELISA, while (B) carbonic anhydrase 1 (Ca1) and (C) squalene synthase (Fdft1) were verified by qRT-PCR at 12 h pi. Relative gene expression (RGE) normalized to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase is shown as the mean ± standard error of the mean of seven mice per group. *, P < 0.05.