Verification of genes increased in males compared to females prior to infection. Gene changes between uninfected males (Un-M) and uninfected females (Un-F) in Table 2 were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genes increased in males included: cyclin E2 (Ccne2); Cyp2e1; carbonic anhydrase 3 (Ca3); aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a7); sulphotransferase1e1 (Sult1e1); haptoglobin (Hp); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90aa1). Relative gene expression (RGE) normalized to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is shown as the mean ± standard error of the mean of seven mice per group. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.