Only female osteoblasts increase production of prostaglandin (PGE
and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) after oestrogen treatment when grown on titanium (Ti) surfaces. Osteoblasts isolated from calvaria of male and female rats were plated on Ti surfaces. At confluence, cells were treated with E2 or E2-BSA for 24 hours. Levels of PGE2 (A, B) and latent TGF-β1(C, D) were measured in the conditioned media. *P < 0.05, Ti surfaces versus tissue culture polystyrene; #P < 0.05, oestradiol versus control.