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  1. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis of vasospastic angina (VA) have not been well elucidated. This study was performed to investigate sex-specific characteristics and predictors for long-...

    Authors: Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Ho Jo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Min-Ho Lee, Won-Woo Seo and Sang Hong Baek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:66

    Content type: Research

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  2. Women are more vulnerable than men to the neurotoxicity and severe brain damage caused by chronic heavy alcohol use. In addition, brain damage due to chronic heavy alcohol use may be associated with sex-depend...

    Authors: Mi Ran Choi, Jasmin Sanghyun Han, Yeung-Bae Jin, Sang-Rae Lee, In Young Choi, Heejin Lee, Hyun Cho and Dai-Jin Kim

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:65

    Content type: Research

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  3. Recent evidence by our laboratory demonstrates that women and female mice endogenously express higher endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor (ECMR) than males. Mounting clinical evidence also indicates that al...

    Authors: Jessica L. Faulkner, Emily Lluch, Simone Kennard, Galina Antonova, Iris Z. Jaffe and Eric J. Belin de Chantemèle

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:64

    Content type: Research

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  4. While the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in women is clear, studies suggest that biological sex may also influence AD pathogenesis. However, mechanisms behind these differences are not clear. To...

    Authors: Dany Arsenault, Cyntia Tremblay, Vincent Emond and Frédéric Calon

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:63

    Content type: Research

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  5. It is a long established fact that sex is an important factor that influences the transcriptional regulatory processes of an organism. However, understanding sex-based differences in gene expression has been l...

    Authors: Tianyuan Lu and Jessica C. Mar

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:61

    Content type: Research

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  6. Women report more work-related pain and neck/shoulder musculoskeletal disorders than men. For the same absolute workload, due to lower strength, females generally work at a higher relative intensity, which cou...

    Authors: Matthew Slopecki, Karen Messing and Julie N. Côté

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:60

    Content type: Research

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  7. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is suggested to decrease fatigability in some individuals but not others. Sex differences in response to IPC may account for this variability and few studies systematically inves...

    Authors: Hugo M. Pereira, Felipe F. de Lima, Bruno M. Silva and André F. Kohn

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:59

    Content type: Research

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  8. Asparagine and aspartate homeostasis are linked with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to explore whether asparagine and aspartate metabolism interacted with sex and age to increase the risk of T2D.

    Authors: Hui-Huan Luo, Xiao-Fei Feng, Xi-Lin Yang, Rui-Qin Hou and Zhong-Ze Fang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:58

    Content type: Research

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  9. Among the unknowns posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the role of biological sex to explain disease susceptibility and progression is still a matter of debate, with limited sex-disaggre...

    Authors: Valeria Raparelli, Luigi Palmieri, Marco Canevelli, Flavia Pricci, Brigid Unim, Cinzia Lo Noce, Emanuele R. Villani, Paula A. Rochon, Louise Pilote, Nicola Vanacore and Graziano Onder

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:57

    Content type: Research

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  10. Current understanding about health care in the gender diverse population is limited by the lack of community-based, longitudinal data, especially in the USA. We sought to characterize a community-based cohort ...

    Authors: Haleigh A. James, Alice Y. Chang, Reese L. Imhof, Aradhana Sahoo, Monique M. Montenegro, Nicole R. Imhof, Cesar A. Gonzalez, Aida N. Lteif, Todd B. Nippoldt and Caroline J. Davidge-Pitts

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:55

    Content type: Research

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  11. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pregnancy precedes a high maternal mortality rate of 20–40%. AKI during pregnancy has multiple etiologies; however, the more common are maternal hypertensive d...

    Authors: Jamie Szczepanski, Shauna-Kay Spencer, Ashley Griffin, Teylor Bowles, Jan Michael Williams, Patrick B. Kyle, John Polk Dumas, Sarah Araji and Kedra Wallace

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:54

    Content type: Research

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  12. Premenopausal women have a lower risk of hypertension compared to age-matched men and postmenopausal women. P2Y2 and P2Y4 purinoceptor can be considered potential contributors to hypertension due to their emergin...

    Authors: Eman Y. Gohar, Malgorzata Kasztan, Shali Zhang, Edward W. Inscho and David M. Pollock

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:52

    Content type: Research

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  13. Most persons with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed in later life. To address the need for earlier diagnosis, we previously assessed miRNAs in the blood plasma of pre...

    Authors: Nihal A. Salem, Amanda H. Mahnke, Alan B. Wells, Alexander M. Tseng, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Wladimir Wertlecki, Christina D. Chambers and Rajesh C. Miranda

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:51

    Content type: Research

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  14. Sex-related differences in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases is well documented, with females showing a greater propensity to develop these diseases than their male counterparts. Sex hormones, namely dihyd...

    Authors: Ninaad Lasrado, Ting Jia, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rodrigo Franco, Zsolt Illes and Jay Reddy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:50

    Content type: Review

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  15. Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) than men by a ratio of approximately 3:1. However, being male is a risk factor for worse disability progression. Inflammatory genes have been linked to sus...

    Authors: Rhonda R. Voskuhl, Kevin Patel, Friedemann Paul, Stefan M. Gold, Michael Scheel, Joseph Kuchling, Graham Cooper, Susanna Asseyer, Claudia Chien, Alexander U. Brandt, Cassandra Eve Meyer and Allan MacKenzie-Graham

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:49

    Content type: Research

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  16. Acutely, testosterone (TES) and other androgens are efficacious vasodilators, both in vitro and in vivo; however, their long-term effects on arterial blood pressure (BP) remain unclear. It was hypothesized tha...

    Authors: Andrea E. Hanson, Mercedes Perusquia and John N. Stallone

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:48

    Content type: Research

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  17. Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies f...

    Authors: Susan Stienen, João Pedro Ferreira, Masatake Kobayashi, Gregoire Preud’homme, Daniela Dobre, Jean-Loup Machu, Kevin Duarte, Emmanuel Bresso, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Natalia López Andrés, Nicolas Girerd, Svend Aakhus, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Alan G. Fraser…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:47

    Content type: Research

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  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and is highly malignant. Male prevalence and frequent activation of the Ras signaling pathway are distinct characteristics of HCC. However, the un...

    Authors: Huiling Li, Zhuona Rong, Hong Wang, Nan Zhang, Chunwen Pu, Yi Zhao, Xu Zheng, Chuanyi Lei, Yang Liu, Xiaoqin Luo, Jun Chen, Fujin Wang, Aiguo Wang and Jingyu Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:46

    Content type: Research

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  19. Estradiol and testosterone are powerful steroid hormones that impact brain function in numerous ways. During development, these hormones can act to program the adult brain in a male or female direction. During...

    Authors: Damian G. Zuloaga, Ashley L. Heck, Rose M. De Guzman and Robert J. Handa

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:44

    Content type: Review

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  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach are the most common GISTs. The risk, incidence, and outcome of cancer are different between the sexes. Whether gender is related to the prognosis of gastr...

    Authors: Jianfang Rong, Sihai Chen, Conghua Song, Huan Wang, Qiaoyun Zhao, Rulin Zhao, Yajing He, Lili Yan, Yanping Song, Fangfei Wang and Yong Xie

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:43

    Content type: Research

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  21. Human X and Y chromosomes share an evolutionary origin and, as a consequence, sequence similarity. We investigated whether the sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes affects the alignment of RNA-Seq...

    Authors: Kimberly C. Olney, Sarah M. Brotman, Jocelyn P. Andrews, Valeria A. Valverde-Vesling and Melissa A. Wilson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:42

    Content type: Research

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  22. Gender difference in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is an important topic in the field of cardiovascular medicine. In this study, we focused on the mortality difference of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), whi...

    Authors: Zujie Gao, Jiang Xiong, Zengsheng Chen, Xiaoyan Deng, Zaipin Xu, Anqiang Sun and Yubo Fan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:41

    Content type: Research

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  23. Individuals exposed to gestational stressors such as alcohol exhibit a spectrum of growth patterns, suggesting individualized responses to the stressors. We hypothesized that intrauterine growth responses to g...

    Authors: Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Brandon H. Presswood, Kaylee K. Helfrich, Joshua W. Baulch, Sandra M. Mooney and Susan M. Smith

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:40

    Content type: Research

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  24. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mechanism by which the X-linked gene dosage is adjusted between the sexes. Evidence shows that many sex-specific diseases have their basis in X chromosome biology. While ...

    Authors: Xinzhu Zhang, Yuhong Li, Lei Ma, Guofu Zhang, Min Liu, Chuanyue Wang, Yi Zheng and Rena Li

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:39

    Content type: Research

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  25. There are inconsistent interpretations of the interrelationship of adiposity, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Additionally, whether these relationships differ between ...

    Authors: Youzhou Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Jihong Wang, Huayi Sun, Xingshan Zhao, Xiaoguang Cheng and Qiong Zhao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:38

    Content type: Research

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  26. Recent data suggest that excessive alcohol use is increasing among women and older adults. Such trends are concerning, as women are more vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences, and such health probl...

    Authors: MacKenzie R. Peltier, Terril L. Verplaetse, Walter Roberts, Kelly Moore, Catherine Burke, Phillip L. Marotta, Sarah Phillips, Philip H. Smith and Sherry A. McKee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:37

    Content type: Research

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  27. Studies have recently examined the role of epigenetic mechanisms in preeclampsia pathophysiology. One commonly examined epigenetic process is DNA methylation. This heritable epigenetic marker is involved in ma...

    Authors: A. Cirkovic, V. Garovic, J. Milin Lazovic, O. Milicevic, M. Savic, N. Rajovic, N. Aleksic, T. Weissgerber, A. Stefanovic, D. Stanisavljevic and N. Milic

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:36

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Women show greater pathological Tau biomarkers than men along the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum, particularly among apolipoprotein ε-E4 (APOE4) carriers; however, the reason for this sex difference in unk...

    Authors: Erin E. Sundermann, Matthew S. Panizzon, Xu Chen, Murray Andrews, Douglas Galasko and Sarah J. Banks

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:33

    Content type: Research

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  29. The hippocampus is central to spatial learning and stress responsiveness, both of which differ in form and function in males versus females, yet precisely how the hippocampus contributes to these sex differenc...

    Authors: Katherine E. Kight and Margaret M. McCarthy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:30

    Content type: Review

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  30. Emerging evidence from China suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is deadlier for infected men than women with a 2.8% fatality rate being reported in Chinese men versus 1.7% in women. Further, sex...

    Authors: Catherine Gebhard, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Hannelore K. Neuhauser, Rosemary Morgan and Sabra L. Klein

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:29

    Content type: Review

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  31. The commonly used laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, is unique in having multiple Sry gene copies found on the Y chromosome, with different copies encoding amino acid variations that influence the resulting prote...

    Authors: Jeremy W. Prokop, Surya B. Chhetri, J. Edward van Veen, Xuqi Chen, Adam C. Underwood, Katie Uhl, Melinda R. Dwinell, Aron M. Geurts, Stephanie M. Correa and Arthur P. Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:28

    Content type: Research

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  32. Alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and treatment outcomes are worse in individuals with both conditions. Although more men report experiencing traumatic events than w...

    Authors: Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Connor L. Schratz and Nicholas W. Gilpin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:27

    Content type: Research

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  33. Since the placenta also has a sex, fetal sex–specific differences in the occurrence of placenta-mediated complications could exist.

    Authors: Zoe A. Broere-Brown, Maria C. Adank, Laura Benschop, Myrte Tielemans, Taulant Muka, Romy Gonçalves, Wichor M. Bramer, Josje D Schoufour, Trudy Voortman, Eric A. P. Steegers, Oscar H. Franco and Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:26

    Content type: Review

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  34. Asymmetric fetal growth and male sex are both associated with adverse neonatal outcome. However, less is known about the influence of asymmetric growth and fetal sex within SGA neonates, a group of infants alr...

    Authors: Eva R. van der Vlugt, Petra E. Verburg, Shalem Y. Leemaqz, Lesley M. E. McCowan, Lucilla Poston, Louise C. Kenny, Jenny Myers, James J. Walker, Gustaaf A. Dekker and Claire T. Roberts

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:25

    Content type: Research

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  35. Immunotherapies are often used for the treatment, remission, and possible cure of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Empirical evidence illustrates that females and males differ in outcomes...

    Authors: Sabra L. Klein and Rosemary Morgan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:24

    Content type: Review

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  36. Gender-specific studies remain a neglected area of biomedical research. Recent reports have emphasized that sex-related biological factors may affect disease progression during HIV-1 infection. The aim of this...

    Authors: Letizia Santinelli, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Cristian Borrazzo, Giuseppe Pietro Innocenti, Federica Frasca, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Luigi Celani, Chiara Nonne, Claudio Maria Mastroianni and Gabriella d’Ettorre

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:23

    Content type: Research

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  37. Sleep plays an important role in vulnerability to mood disorders. However, despite the existence of sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders, no study has yet investigated the sex effect on sleep net...

    Authors: Matthieu Hein, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Gwénolé Loas, Philippe Hubain and Paul Linkowski

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:22

    Content type: Research

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  38. Social functioning (SF), the ability to engage with life and fulfill roles may be a salient “patient important outcome” in addiction treatment. It is not known if medication-assisted treatment (MAT) impacts SF...

    Authors: Emma A. van Reekum, Tea Rosic, Jacqueline Hudson, Nitika Sanger, David C. Marsh, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:20

    Content type: Research

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  39. Large elastic arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction are phenotypic characteristics of vascular aging, a major risk factor for age-associated cardiovascular diseases. Compared to men, vascular aging i...

    Authors: Kerrie L. Moreau, Matthew C. Babcock and Kerry L. Hildreth

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:18

    Content type: Review

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  40. We sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, ...

    Authors: Pradeep Alur, Renjithkumar Kalikkot Thekkeveedu, Madaleine Meeks, Kyle C. Hart, Jagdish Desai, Marla Johnson, Sara Marie Presley and Naveed Hussain

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:16

    Content type: Research

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