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  1. Since American Indians are predisposed to type 2 diabetes (DM2) and associated cardiovascular risk, Cherokee boys and girls (n = 917) were studied to determine whether BMI Z (body mass index Z score) is associ...

    Authors: Piers R Blackett, Sohail Khan, Wenyu Wang, Petar Alaupovic and Elisa T Lee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a puta...

    Authors: Trayana Stankova, Peter Eichhammer, Berthold Langguth and Philipp G Sand

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:17

    Content type: Research

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  3. Malignant melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Female sex is known to have a protective effect on incidence, tumour characteristics, and mortality from melanoma. However, the potentially modifying ...

    Authors: Marie Fridberg, Liv Jonsson, Julia Bergman, Björn Nodin and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:16

    Content type: Research

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  4. Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested...

    Authors: Patrick V Taylor, Alexa H Veenema, Matthew J Paul, Remco Bredewold, Stephanie Isaacs and Geert J de Vries

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:15

    Content type: Research

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  5. Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower ...

    Authors: Kalypso Karastergiou, Steven R Smith, Andrew S Greenberg and Susan K Fried

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:13

    Content type: Review

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  6. Although there appear to be no differences in muscle protein turnover in young and middle aged men and women, we have reported significant differences in the rate of muscle protein synthesis between older adul...

    Authors: Gordon I Smith, Dominic N Reeds, Angela M Hall, Kari T Chambers, Brian N Finck and Bettina Mittendorfer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:11

    Content type: Research

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  7. Low endogenous testosterone levels have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy are being advoc...

    Authors: Erin K O’Connor, Jan R Ivey and Douglas K Bowles

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:10

    Content type: Research

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  8. Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are le...

    Authors: Tara L Conforto and David J Waxman

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:9

    Content type: Research

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  9. Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rat...

    Authors: Kathryn Sandberg and Hong Ji

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:7

    Content type: Review

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  10. Studies in multiple organ systems have shown cross-talk between signaling through the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) and estrogen pathways. In humans, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) ...

    Authors: Eric D Austin, Rizwan Hamid, Anna R Hemnes, James E Loyd, Tom Blackwell, Chang Yu, John A Phillips III, Radhika Gaddipati, Santhi Gladson, Everett Gu, James West and Kirk B Lane

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:6

    Content type: Research

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  11. Calbindin-D28 has been used as a marker for the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Males have a distinct cluster of calbindin-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the medial preoptic area (CALB...

    Authors: Richard F Gilmore, Megan M Varnum and Nancy G Forger

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:5

    Content type: Research

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  12. Fertile women may be encouraged to use contraception during clinical trials to avoid potential drug effects on fetuses. However, hormonal contraception interferes with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and...

    Authors: Ilaria Campesi, Manuela Sanna, Angelo Zinellu, Ciriaco Carru, Laura Rubattu, Pamela Bulzomi, Giuseppe Seghieri, Giancarlo Tonolo, Mario Palermo, Giuseppe Rosano, Maria Marino and Flavia Franconi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:4

    Content type: Research

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  13. It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characte...

    Authors: Heather B Patisaul, Sandra M Losa-Ward, Karina L Todd, Katherine A McCaffrey and Jillian A Mickens

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:2

    Content type: Research

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  14. Testosterone (T) and the sympathetic nervous system each contribute to the pathology of hypertension. Altered blood vessel reactivity is also associated with the pathology of high blood pressure. The purpose o...

    Authors: Jonathan D Toot, John J Reho, Rolando J Ramirez, Jacqueline Novak and Daniel L Ely

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:1

    Content type: Research

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  15. Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, ec...

    Authors: Virginia M Miller, Jay R Kaplan, Nicholas J Schork, Pamela Ouyang, Sarah L Berga, Nanette K Wenger, Leslee J Shaw, R Clinton Webb, Monica Mallampalli, Meir Steiner, Doris A Taylor, C Noel Bairey Merz and Jane F Reckelhoff

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:14

    Content type: Review

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  16. Mouse kallikrein 1b26 (klk1b26) protein is more abundant in male submandibular glands (SMGs) than in female ones. This sexual dimorphism has been thought to be due to increased mRNA synthesis stimulated by and...

    Authors: Kinji Kurihara, Nobuo Nakanishi and Akito Tomomura

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:13

    Content type: Research

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  17. Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men....

    Authors: Shalome M Tonelli, Barbara A Rakel, Nicholas A Cooper, Whitney L Angstom and Kathleen A Sluka

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:12

    Content type: Research

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  18. Chromosomal complement, including that provided by the sex chromosomes, influences expression of proteins and molecular signaling in every cell. However, less than 50% of the scientific studies published in 20...

    Authors: K Efua Taylor, Catalina Vallejo-Giraldo, Niccole S Schaible, Rosita Zakeri and Virginia M Miller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:11

    Content type: Research

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  19. Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is generally not considered to be a hormone-dependent malignancy, several sex-related differences in incidence, molecular characteristics and survival have been reported. Epide...

    Authors: Sakarias Wangefjord, Jonas Manjer, Alexander Gaber, Björn Nodin, Jakob Eberhard and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:10

    Content type: Research

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  20. Hypertension (HTN) exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in wo...

    Authors: Scott R Collier, Vincent Frechette, Kathryn Sandberg, Patrick Schafer, Hong Ji, Harold Smulyan and Bo Fernhall

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:9

    Content type: Research

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  21. Both coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and influenza A virus (IAV; H1N1) produce sexually dimorphic infections in C57BL/6 mice. Gonadal steroids can modulate sex differences in response to both viruses. Here, the effec...

    Authors: Dionne P Robinson, Sally A Huber, Mohamad Moussawi, Brian Roberts, Cory Teuscher, Rebecca Watkins, Arthur P Arnold and Sabra L Klein

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:8

    Content type: Research

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  22. Numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders show sex differences in incidence, age of onset, symptomatology or outcome. Astrocytes, one of the glial cell types of the brain, show sex differences in number,...

    Authors: María Santos-Galindo, Estefanía Acaz-Fonseca, María J Bellini and Luis M Garcia-Segura

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:7

    Content type: Research

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  23. Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA) adipose tissue (AT). This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to env...

    Authors: Viktoria Gloy, Wolfgang Langhans, Jacquelien JG Hillebrand, Nori Geary and Lori Asarian

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:6

    Content type: Research

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  24. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD) in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46...

    Authors: Laura J Chalmers, Paul Doherty, Claude J Migeon, Kenneth C Copeland, Brianna C Bright and Amy B Wisniewski

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:5

    Content type: Research

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  25. Gender and enhanced novelty reactivity can predispose certain individuals to drug abuse. Previous research in male and female rats selectively bred for high or low locomotor reactivity to novelty found that br...

    Authors: Jennifer A Cummings, Brooke A Gowl, Christel Westenbroek, Sarah M Clinton, Huda Akil and Jill B Becker

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:3

    Content type: Research

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  26. Men are at an increased risk of dying from heart failure caused by inflammatory heart diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously showed that macrophages in th...

    Authors: Jennifer A Onyimba, Michael J Coronado, Amanda E Garton, Joseph B Kim, Adriana Bucek, Djahida Bedja, Kathleen L Gabrielson, Tomas R Guilarte and DeLisa Fairweather

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:2

    Content type: Research

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  27. Women are more susceptible to a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...

    Authors: Rhonda Voskuhl

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:1

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Reproductive functions controlled by the hypothalamus are highly sexually differentiated. One of the most dramatic differences involves estrogen positive feedback, which leads to ovulation. A crucial feature o...

    Authors: John Kuo, Naheed Hamid, Galyna Bondar, Phoebe Dewing, Jenny Clarkson and Paul Micevych

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Angotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a newly discovered monocarboxypeptidase that counteracts the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) by converting Ang II to Ang-(1-7) in the kidney and othe...

    Authors: Jun Liu, Hong Ji, Wei Zheng, Xie Wu, Janet J Zhu, Arthur P Arnold and Kathryn Sandberg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Children and young adults of reproductive age have emerged as groups that are highly vulnerable to the current 2009 H1N1 pandemic. The sex of an individual is a fundamental factor that can influence exposure, ...

    Authors: Sabra L Klein, Catherine Passaretti, Martha Anker, Peju Olukoya and Andrew Pekosz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:5

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  31. Osseointegration depends on the implant surface, bone quality and the local and systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. This study was undertaken in order to determine if male ...

    Authors: Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Sharon L Hyzy, Reyhaan A Chaudhri, Ge Zhao, Barbara D Boyan and Zvi Schwartz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:4

    Content type: Research

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  32. Three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, is a marine protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Individuals mature either as initial phase (IP) males or females. Appropriate social cues induce the sex change from IP fem...

    Authors: Yasuhisa Kobayashi, Ryo Horiguchi, Ryo Nozu and Masaru Nakamura

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:3

    Content type: Research

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  33. Although circulating levels of sexual hormones in elderly men and women are low and quite similar, the adaptation of the elderly heart to stress differs between the sexes. We have hypothesized that the effects...

    Authors: Georgios Kararigas, Eva Becher, Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh, Christoph Knosalla, Roland Hetzer and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on: