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  1. Content type: Review

    Sex differences occur in most non-communicable diseases, including metabolic diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric and neurological disorders and cancer. In many cases, the susceptibility...

    Authors: Anne Gabory, Tessa J Roseboom, Tom Moore, Lorna G Moore and Claudine Junien

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:5

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  2. Content type: Review

    Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis de...

    Authors: Barbara D Boyan, David A Hart, Roger M Enoka, Daniel P Nicolella, Eileen Resnick, Karen J Berkley, Kathleen A Sluka, C Kent Kwoh, Laura L Tosi, Mary I O’Connor, Richard D Coutts and Wendy M Kohrt

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:3

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  3. Content type: Review

    Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized...

    Authors: Ihori Kobayashi, Nancy Cowdin and Thomas A Mellman

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:29

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  4. Content type: Review

    The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage...

    Authors: Daniel P Nicolella, Mary I O’Connor, Roger M Enoka, Barbara D Boyan, David A Hart, Eileen Resnick, Karen J Berkley, Kathleen A Sluka, C Kent Kwoh, Laura L Tosi, Richard D Coutts, Lorena M Havill and Wendy M Kohrt

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:28

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internall...

    Authors: Daphna Joel

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:27

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  6. Content type: Review

    People with osteoarthritis (OA) can have significant pain that interferes with function and quality of life. Women with knee OA have greater pain and greater reductions in function and quality of life than men...

    Authors: Kathleen A Sluka, Karen J Berkley, Mary I O’Connor, Daniel P Nicolella, Roger M Enoka, Barbara D Boyan, David A Hart, Eileen Resnick, C Kent Kwoh, Laura L Tosi, Richard D Coutts and Wendy M Kohrt

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) induces myocarditis, an inflammatory heart disease, which affects men more than women. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has been shown to determine the severity of CVB3-induced myoca...

    Authors: Brian J Roberts, Julie A Dragon, Mohamad Moussawi and Sally A Huber

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:25

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  8. Content type: Review

    Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is...

    Authors: Dena B Dubal, Lauren Broestl and Kurtresha Worden

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:24

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  9. Content type: Research

    It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM) stage. The primary aim of this study ...

    Authors: Jenny Brändstedt, Sakarias Wangefjord, Björn Nodin, Alexander Gaber, Jonas Manjer and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:23

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  10. Content type: Research

    Because cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, we examined the possible sex differences in color appearance of monochromatic lights across the visible spectrum. There is a history o...

    Authors: Israel Abramov, James Gordon, Olga Feldman and Alla Chavarga

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:21

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  11. Content type: Research

    Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum t...

    Authors: Israel Abramov, James Gordon, Olga Feldman and Alla Chavarga

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:20

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  12. Content type: Review

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may she...

    Authors: Jay N Giedd, Armin Raznahan, Kathryn L Mills and Rhoshel K Lenroot

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:19

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  13. Content type: Research

    Since American Indians are predisposed to type 2 diabetes (DM2) and associated cardiovascular risk, Cherokee boys and girls (n = 917) were studied to determine whether BMI Z (body mass index Z score) is associ...

    Authors: Piers R Blackett, Sohail Khan, Wenyu Wang, Petar Alaupovic and Elisa T Lee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:18

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  14. Content type: Research

    Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a puta...

    Authors: Trayana Stankova, Peter Eichhammer, Berthold Langguth and Philipp G Sand

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:17

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  15. Content type: Research

    Malignant melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Female sex is known to have a protective effect on incidence, tumour characteristics, and mortality from melanoma. However, the potentially modifying ...

    Authors: Marie Fridberg, Liv Jonsson, Julia Bergman, Björn Nodin and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:16

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  16. Content type: Research

    Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested...

    Authors: Patrick V Taylor, Alexa H Veenema, Matthew J Paul, Remco Bredewold, Stephanie Isaacs and Geert J de Vries

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:15

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  17. Content type: Review

    Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower ...

    Authors: Kalypso Karastergiou, Steven R Smith, Andrew S Greenberg and Susan K Fried

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:13

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  18. Content type: Research

    Although there appear to be no differences in muscle protein turnover in young and middle aged men and women, we have reported significant differences in the rate of muscle protein synthesis between older adul...

    Authors: Gordon I Smith, Dominic N Reeds, Angela M Hall, Kari T Chambers, Brian N Finck and Bettina Mittendorfer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:11

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  19. Content type: Research

    Low endogenous testosterone levels have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy are being advoc...

    Authors: Erin K O’Connor, Jan R Ivey and Douglas K Bowles

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:10

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  20. Content type: Research

    Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are le...

    Authors: Tara L Conforto and David J Waxman

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:9

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  21. Content type: Review

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rat...

    Authors: Kathryn Sandberg and Hong Ji

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:7

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  22. Content type: Research

    Studies in multiple organ systems have shown cross-talk between signaling through the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) and estrogen pathways. In humans, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) ...

    Authors: Eric D Austin, Rizwan Hamid, Anna R Hemnes, James E Loyd, Tom Blackwell, Chang Yu, John A Phillips III, Radhika Gaddipati, Santhi Gladson, Everett Gu, James West and Kirk B Lane

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:6

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  23. Content type: Research

    Calbindin-D28 has been used as a marker for the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Males have a distinct cluster of calbindin-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the medial preoptic area (CALB...

    Authors: Richard F Gilmore, Megan M Varnum and Nancy G Forger

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:5

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  24. Content type: Research

    Fertile women may be encouraged to use contraception during clinical trials to avoid potential drug effects on fetuses. However, hormonal contraception interferes with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and...

    Authors: Ilaria Campesi, Manuela Sanna, Angelo Zinellu, Ciriaco Carru, Laura Rubattu, Pamela Bulzomi, Giuseppe Seghieri, Giancarlo Tonolo, Mario Palermo, Giuseppe Rosano, Maria Marino and Flavia Franconi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:4

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  25. Content type: Research

    It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characte...

    Authors: Heather B Patisaul, Sandra M Losa-Ward, Karina L Todd, Katherine A McCaffrey and Jillian A Mickens

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:2

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  26. Content type: Research

    Testosterone (T) and the sympathetic nervous system each contribute to the pathology of hypertension. Altered blood vessel reactivity is also associated with the pathology of high blood pressure. The purpose o...

    Authors: Jonathan D Toot, John J Reho, Rolando J Ramirez, Jacqueline Novak and Daniel L Ely

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2012 3:1

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  27. Content type: Review

    Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, ec...

    Authors: Virginia M Miller, Jay R Kaplan, Nicholas J Schork, Pamela Ouyang, Sarah L Berga, Nanette K Wenger, Leslee J Shaw, R Clinton Webb, Monica Mallampalli, Meir Steiner, Doris A Taylor, C Noel Bairey Merz and Jane F Reckelhoff

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:14

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  28. Content type: Research

    Mouse kallikrein 1b26 (klk1b26) protein is more abundant in male submandibular glands (SMGs) than in female ones. This sexual dimorphism has been thought to be due to increased mRNA synthesis stimulated by and...

    Authors: Kinji Kurihara, Nobuo Nakanishi and Akito Tomomura

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:13

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  29. Content type: Research

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men....

    Authors: Shalome M Tonelli, Barbara A Rakel, Nicholas A Cooper, Whitney L Angstom and Kathleen A Sluka

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:12

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  30. Content type: Research

    Chromosomal complement, including that provided by the sex chromosomes, influences expression of proteins and molecular signaling in every cell. However, less than 50% of the scientific studies published in 20...

    Authors: K Efua Taylor, Catalina Vallejo-Giraldo, Niccole S Schaible, Rosita Zakeri and Virginia M Miller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:11

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  31. Content type: Research

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is generally not considered to be a hormone-dependent malignancy, several sex-related differences in incidence, molecular characteristics and survival have been reported. Epide...

    Authors: Sakarias Wangefjord, Jonas Manjer, Alexander Gaber, Björn Nodin, Jakob Eberhard and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:10

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  32. Content type: Research

    Hypertension (HTN) exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in wo...

    Authors: Scott R Collier, Vincent Frechette, Kathryn Sandberg, Patrick Schafer, Hong Ji, Harold Smulyan and Bo Fernhall

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:9

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  33. Content type: Research

    Both coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and influenza A virus (IAV; H1N1) produce sexually dimorphic infections in C57BL/6 mice. Gonadal steroids can modulate sex differences in response to both viruses. Here, the effec...

    Authors: Dionne P Robinson, Sally A Huber, Mohamad Moussawi, Brian Roberts, Cory Teuscher, Rebecca Watkins, Arthur P Arnold and Sabra L Klein

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:8

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  34. Content type: Research

    Numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders show sex differences in incidence, age of onset, symptomatology or outcome. Astrocytes, one of the glial cell types of the brain, show sex differences in number,...

    Authors: María Santos-Galindo, Estefanía Acaz-Fonseca, María J Bellini and Luis M Garcia-Segura

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:7

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  35. Content type: Research

    Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA) adipose tissue (AT). This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to env...

    Authors: Viktoria Gloy, Wolfgang Langhans, Jacquelien JG Hillebrand, Nori Geary and Lori Asarian

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:6

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  36. Content type: Research

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD) in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46...

    Authors: Laura J Chalmers, Paul Doherty, Claude J Migeon, Kenneth C Copeland, Brianna C Bright and Amy B Wisniewski

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:5

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  37. Content type: Research

    Gender and enhanced novelty reactivity can predispose certain individuals to drug abuse. Previous research in male and female rats selectively bred for high or low locomotor reactivity to novelty found that br...

    Authors: Jennifer A Cummings, Brooke A Gowl, Christel Westenbroek, Sarah M Clinton, Huda Akil and Jill B Becker

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:3

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  38. Content type: Research

    Men are at an increased risk of dying from heart failure caused by inflammatory heart diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously showed that macrophages in th...

    Authors: Jennifer A Onyimba, Michael J Coronado, Amanda E Garton, Joseph B Kim, Adriana Bucek, Djahida Bedja, Kathleen L Gabrielson, Tomas R Guilarte and DeLisa Fairweather

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:2

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  39. Content type: Review

    Women are more susceptible to a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...

    Authors: Rhonda Voskuhl

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2011 2:1

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  40. Content type: Research

    Reproductive functions controlled by the hypothalamus are highly sexually differentiated. One of the most dramatic differences involves estrogen positive feedback, which leads to ovulation. A crucial feature o...

    Authors: John Kuo, Naheed Hamid, Galyna Bondar, Phoebe Dewing, Jenny Clarkson and Paul Micevych

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2010 1:7

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