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Table 7 Sex differences identified in the urine metabolome (part 2)

From: Sex differences in the human metabolome

  Adults Children Infants
First author and year Chekmeneva E. 2018 [65] De Paepe E. 2018 [66] Fan S. 2018 [67] Rist M. J. 2017 [56] Slupsky C. M. 2007 [60] Thévenot E. A. 2015 [61] Lau C.-H. E. 2018 [54] Scalabre A. 2017 [59]
Metabolite
OA 2-Hydroxyglutaric acid    F      
2-Hydroxyphenyl acetic acid     M     
3,4-Dihydroxy phenylacetic acid   M       
4-Hydroxybutyric acid    M      
4-Deoxythreonic acid     M     
α-Ketoglutaric acid    M F   F   
Capric acid    M      
Caprylic acid    M      
Citric acid F   F F F F   
Fumaric acid    F   F F   
Heptadecanoic acid    M      
Malic acid    F    F   
Mevalonic acid       F   
Oxoglutaric acid       F   
Pantothenic acid       F   
Pelargonic acid    M      
Pyruvic acid       F   
Stearic acid    M      
Succinic acid    F      
carbohydrates D-Fructose   F   F     
Acetaminophen glucuronide       F   
Galactonic acid    F      
Gluconic acid       F   
Glucuronic acid       F   
Glyceric acid       F   
Lyxose    F      
Maltose    F      
Pentose       F   
Threonic acid       F   
UDP-glucuronic acid    M      
Xylose    F      
Acylglycines 2-Methylhippuric acid       F   
3-Methylcrotonyl glycine       F   
Cinnamoylglycine       F   
Hippuric acid       F   
p-Hydroxyhippuric acid       F   
Tiglylglycine       F   
Valerylglycine       F   
Xen 1-Methylurate M        
1-Methylxantine M        
Caffeine       F   
  1. M, higher levels of the metabolite identified in male individuals; F, higher levels of the metabolite identified in female individuals. Xen, xenobiotics