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Table 4 Sex differences identified in the serum metabolome for AA

From: Sex differences in the human metabolome

  Adults Children Infants
First author and year Dunn W. B. 2014 [38] Mittelstrass K. 2011 [24] Ruoppolo M. 2014 [15] Saito K. 2016 [58] Lau C.-H. E. 2018 [54] Caterino M. 2021 [36] Ruoppolo M. 2015 [57]
Metabolite
AA and analogues Alanine       F F
Arginine   M      
Asparagine    M M    
Aspartate       F F
BCAA    M M    F
Citrulline    M M   F F
Creatine     F    
Creatinine F    M    
Cysteine     M    
Glutamine   M M    F  
Glutamate    M M    F
Glycine   F     F F
Histidine    M     
Lysine     M F   
Methionine    M M    F
Methionine sulfoxide F       
Ornithine   M   M F   F
Phenylalanine     M    F
Proline    M M    
Serine   F    F   
Threonine     M    
Tryptophan    F M    
Tyrosine F   M M   F F
Putrescine      F   
S-Adenosyl homocysteine     M    
Serotonin     M M   
Caffeine F       
  1. M, higher levels of the identified metabolite in male individuals; F, higher levels of the identified metabolite in female individuals