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Table 3 Unadjusted modifiable risk factors for subjective cognitive decline in U.S. adults aged 45 years and older, 2015–2018

From: Overall and sex-specific risk factors for subjective cognitive decline: findings from the 2015–2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey

Risk factor RR1 (95% CI2) Prevalence (%) Communality3 (%) PAF4 (%) Weighted PAF5 (%)
All adults
 Limited educationa 1.60 (1.47–1.76) 4.78 66.19 2.81 0.85
 Deafnessb 2.60 (2.41–2.80) 9.66 39.81 13.38 4.05
 Social isolationc 3.39 (3.10–3.71) 52.38 70.97 55.60 16.82
 Depressiond 4.17 (4.01–4.34) 18.76 56.15 37.30 11.29
 Smokinge 1.71 (1.63–1.80) 15.46 64.26 9.90 3.00
 Physical inactivityf 1.76 (1.68–1.83) 30.76 39.83 18.87 5.71
 Obesityg 1.27 (1.22–1.33) 32.97 59.06 8.25 2.50
 Hypertensionh 1.62 (1.53–1.71) 50.99 57.99 23.95 7.25
 Diabetesi 1.67 (1.59–1.75) 17.76 57.65 10.57 3.20
    Overall6 89.31 54.66
Women
 Limited educationa 1.61 (1.42–1.83) 4.49 58.99 2.66 0.78
 Deafnessb 2.68 (2.37–3.02) 7.46 48.90 11.12 3.28
 Social isolationc 3.23 (2.89–3.62) 55.70 69.20 55.41 16.31
 Depressiond 4.31 (4.07–4.55) 22.92 57.33 43.12 12.70
 Smokinge 1.88 (1.76–2.01) 14.41 65.83 11.27 3.32
 Physical inactivityf 1.79 (1.69–1.89) 32.25 41.35 20.23 5.96
 Obesityg 1.40 (1.32–1.49) 32.08 64.84 11.35 3.34
 Hypertensionh 1.59 (1.48–1.70) 49.57 58.25 22.52 6.63
 Diabetesi 1.74 (1.63–1.86) 16.73 59.35 10.98 3.23
    Overall6 90.51 55.55
Men
 Limited educationa 1.60 (1.40–1.82) 5.11 26.67 2.96 1.01
 Deafnessb 2.54 (2.30–2.80) 12.22 20.30 15.82 5.38
 Social isolationc 3.65 (3.16–4.21) 47.68 71.96 55.82 19.00
 Depressiond 4.33 (4.08–4.60) 13.94 39.75 31.72 10.80
 Smokinge 1.54 (1.43–1.67) 16.68 50.75 8.29 2.82
 Physical inactivityf 1.73 (1.62–1.85) 29.03 35.75 17.53 5.97
 Obesityg 1.15 (1.08–1.23) 33.93 48.34 4.85 1.65
 Hypertensionh 1.65 (1.52–1.79) 52.63 57.98 25.55 8.70
 Diabetesi 1.59 (1.48–1.70) 18.95 54.94 10.05 3.42
    Overall6 88.12 58.75
  1. Data aggregated from U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2015–2018; estimates were weighted and/or adjusted for complex survey design. Not all risk factors were available for every year of the survey. RR and PAF were unadjusted for demographic factors
  2. 1Relative risk and 2confidence intervals for subjective cognitive decline. 3Total amount of variance a risk factor shares with the other factors
  3. 4Population-attributable fraction; proportion of all cases of subjective cognitive decline in the population that is attributable to a risk factor
  4. 5PAF after accounting for communality. 6Combined PAF of all risk factors. 3−6Please see Additional file 1 for formulas
  5. aNever attended school or discontinued after 8th grade
  6. bIncludes serious difficulty hearing
  7. cNever or rarely receive needed social and emotional support and/or have social activities significantly limited by arthritis
  8. dEver told to have a depressive disorder
  9. eCurrently smoke every day or some days and have smoked ≥ 100 cigarettes in lifetime
  10. fNo physical activity or exercise during past 30 days other than regular job
  11. gBody mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.00 kg/m2
  12. hEver told to have high blood pressure by a health professional, excluding during pregnancy or borderline high, pre-hypertension
  13. iEver told to have diabetes, excluding gestational, borderline or pre-diabetes