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Table 1 Clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) study population stratified by sex

From: Role of GDF-15, YKL-40 and MMP 9 in patients with end-stage kidney disease: focus on sex-specific associations with vascular outcomes and all-cause mortality

ESKD patients Female (n = 79) Male (n = 151) p
Age, years 55 (42–62) 54 (42–65) 0.16
Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 16 (20.3) 52 (34.4) 0.012
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 14 (17.1) 43 (28.5) 0.06
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.8 (21.5–27.7) 24.3 (22.3–27.7) 0.35
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 139 (129–152) 146 (135–160) 0.03
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 82 (74–91) 85 (78–94) 0.06
Smoking history, n (%) 10 (12.7) 14 (9.3) 0.61
SGA, > 1 n (%) 28 (35.4) 46 (30.5) 0.42
Handgrip strength 20 (17–25) 32 (25–39) < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 5.5 (4.4–8.3) 6.3 (5.1–8.3) 0.07
Medications at cohort entry
 ACEi/ARB, n (%) 47 (59.5) 120 (79.5) 0.001
 β-blockers, n (%) 45 (57.0) 104 (68.9) 0.07
 Ca-blockers, n (%) 47 (59.5) 94 (62.3) 0.68
 Statins, n (%) 26 (32.9) 60 (39.7) 0.31
Biochemicals
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.7 (4.0–5.3) 4.2 (3.5–4.7) < 0.001
 High-density lipoprotein, mmol/L 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) < 0.001
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 1.5 (1.2–2.0) 0.79
 Apolipoprotein A1, g/L 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) < 0.001
 Apolipoprotein B, g/L 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 0.14
 Lipoprotein(a), mg/L 327 (102–848) 199 (77–563) 0.18
 Albumin, g/L 34.0 (4.6) 34.0 (5.0) 0.92
 Creatinine, µmol/L 648 (498–817) 757 (612–922) 0.001
 Haemoglobin, g/L 109 (13) 107 (12) 0.24
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 28 (22–34) 30 (25–39) 0.15
Biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and uraemic dysfunction
 hsCRP, mg/L 2.1 (0.8–6.9) 2.3 (1.0–8.9) 0.65
 IL-6, pg/mL 4.0 (2.3–7.7) 5.9 (2.6–9.5) 0.25
 TNF, pg/mL 14.8 (10.9–18.3) 15.6 (12.1–19.5) 0.30
 8-OHdG, ng/mL 0.3 (0.2–0.6) 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 0.03
 TMAO, μM 69.0 (37.7–93.9) 72.6 (48.9–108.0) 0.21
Biomarkers of interest
 GDF-15, ng/mL 4.5 (3.6–5.4) 4.5 (3.4–5.6) 1.00
 MMP-9, ng/mL 328.7 (208.0–552.1) 275.8 (168.9–546.1) 0.44
 YKL-40, ng/mL 120.4 (86.9–173.2) 114.1 (78.9–187.5) 0.90
Vessel physiology
 CAC score, AU 16.5 (0.0–672.0) 68.5 (0.0–1072.0) 0.13
 CAC score, positive n (%) 25 (59.5), [n = 42] 53 (69.7), [n = 76] 0.26
 Media calcification, n (%) 11 (57.9), [n = 19] 33 (84.6), [n = 39] 0.03
 Intimal fibrosis, n (%) 3 (15.8), [n = 19] 14 (35.9), [n = 39] 0.11
Follow-up data
 All-cause mortality, n (%) 7 (8.9) 21 (13.9) 0.27
  1. Bold signifies statistical significance p < 0.05
  2. Continuous data expressed as median ± quartile range (Q1–Q3), or Mean ± SD, and statistical comparisons by Mann–Whitney U test and Student’s t-test, dependent on not-normal distributed and normal distributed data
  3. Nominal data expressed as frequency (%) and statistical comparison by Chi-squared test
  4. ACEi/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, AVC aortic valve calcification, CAC coronary artery calcification, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GDF-15 growth differentiation factor-15, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, hsCRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9, SGA subjective global assessment, TMAO trimethylamine N-oxide, TNF tumour necrosis factor, YKL-40 40-kDa plasma glycoprotein, 8-OHdG 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine