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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of cases and control participants by sexa

From: Sex difference in the association between plasma selenium and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study

Characteristics First stroke cases P value Non-stroke controls P value
Males Females Males Females
N n = 621 n = 634   n = 621 n = 634  
Age, years 71.4 ± 8.1 70.1± 8.0 0.004 71.4 ± 8.1 70.1 ± 8.0 0.003
BMI, kg/m2 25.7 ± 3.6 27.3 ± 4.9 < 0.001 25.0 ± 3.5 26.7 ± 3.8 < 0.001
Current smoking, n (%) 293 (47.2) 3 (0.5) < 0.001 254 (40.9) 1 (0.2) < 0.001
Current alcohol drinking, n (%) 291 (46.9) 4 (0.6) < 0.001 308 (49.6) 9 (1.4) < 0.001
Baseline SBP, mmHg 154.8 ± 23.1 159.5 ± 24.2 < 0.001 146.8 ± 20.8 151.8 ± 22.2 < 0.001
Baseline DBP, mmHg 88.0 ± 13.4 86.4 ± 12.2 0.030 84.4 ± 11.3 82.2 ± 11.4 < 0.001
Self-reported hypertension, n (%) 319 (51.4) 427 (67.4) < 0.001 234 (37.7) 332 (52.4) < 0.001
Self-reported diabetes, n (%) 97 (15.6) 164 (25.9) < 0.001 64 (10.3) 99 (15.6) 0.005
Self-reported hyperlipidemia, n (%) 46 (7.4) 83 (13.1) < 0.001 62 (10.0) 73 (11.5) 0.382
Self-reported atrial fibrillation, n (%) 13 (2.1) 16 (2.5) 0.612 13 (2.1) 4 (0.6) 0.025
Hypertension, n (%)b 511 (82.3) 564 (89.0) < 0.001 429 (69.1) 512 (80.8) < 0.001
Labor intensity, n (%)    < 0.001    0.006
 Mild 457 (73.6) 521 (82.2)   430 (69.2) 477 (75.2)  
 Moderate 125 (20.1) 96 (15.1)   155 (25.0) 112 (17.7)  
 Severe 39 (6.3) 17 (2.7)   36 (5.8) 45 (7.1)  
Medication use, n (%)
 Anti-platelet drugs 37 (6.0) 23 (3.6) 0.053 10 (1.6) 13 (2.1) 0.561
 Lipid-lowering drugs 8 (1.3) 14 (2.2) 0.214 7 (1.1) 15 (2.4) 0.095
 Glucose-lowering drugs 72 (11.6) 121 (19.1) < 0.001 40 (6.4) 68 (10.7) 0.007
 Anti-hypertensive drugs 281 (45.2) 383 (60.4) < 0.001 195 (31.4) 293 (46.2) < 0.001
Laboratory results       
 TC, mmol/L 5.6 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.3 < 0.001 5.7 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.3 < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.3 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 1.0 < 0.001 1.1 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.8 < 0.001
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 0.935 1.7 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.4 0.376
 Glucose, mmol/L 6.3 ± 2.2 6.8 ± 2.8 0.001 5.9 ± 1.9 6.1 ± 2.2 0.051
 tHcy, μmol/L 15.8 ±9.5 12.8 ± 5.7 < 0.001 14.7 ± 7.5 12.2 ± 4.3 < 0.001
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 91.4 ± 15.9 92.0 ± 14.7 0.485 93.1 ± 14.1 93.4 ± 12.7 0.685
 Vitamin E, μg/mL 13.0 ± 3.4 15.2 ± 4.3 < 0.001 12.8 ± 3.1 15.1 ± 4.3 < 0.001
 Selenium, ng/mL 86.2 ± 16.8 87.0 ± 18.4 0.436 89.1 ± 20.1 86.6 ± 18.7 0.020
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, tHcy total homocysteine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. aVariables are presented as the mean ± SD or n (%)
  3. bHypertension was defined as a self-reported history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg