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Table 4 Traits affected by protein restriction (PR) among studies that manipulated diet in multiple periods of gestation

From: Sex-dependent effects of prenatal food and protein restriction on offspring physiology in rats and mice: systematic review and meta-analyses

Study Na Manipulation Duration Traits affectedin males Traits affectedin females Traits affectedin both sexes Analysed sexes separatelyor tested interaction
Wistar rats
 Bellinger 2005 [21] 5 PR(9% vs 18%) GD 0–7 Hepatic Behavioural Body weight Interaction
GD 8–14 None Behavioural None  
GD 15–22 Hepatic Behavioural Body weight  
 Bellinger2006 [22] 8–11 PR(9% vs 18%) GD 0–birth Body weight; fat Fat; behavioural None Interaction
GD 0–7 Body weight;fat; behavioural Body weight; fat None  
GD 8–14 Body weight;behavioural None None  
GD 15–22 Body weight;fat Fat; behavioural None  
 Chamson-Reig2006 [23] 3–4 PR(8% vs 20%) GD 0–weaning None None Pancreatic Interaction
GD 0–14 None Pancreatic Pancreatic  
GD 8–14 None Pancreatic Pancreatic  
GD 15–22 Pancreatic Pancreatic Pancreatic  
 Mallinson2007 [33] 11–13 PR(9% vs 18%) GD 0–birth Muscular None None Interaction
GD 0–7 Muscular None Muscular  
GD 8–14 None Muscular Muscular  
GD 15–22 None None Muscular  
Sprague-Dawley rats
 Woods2004 [54] 6–9 PR(5% vs 19%) GD 1–birth Body weight;renal None Body weight; cardiovascular; renal Sexes separately andinteraction
GD 1–11 None None None  
GD 11–birth Body weight;renal None Cardiovascular  
  1. aSample size is provided as the number of dams per group (? = not stated)