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Table 3 Traits affected by food restriction (FR) in the latter half of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats

From: Sex-dependent effects of prenatal food and protein restriction on offspring physiology in rats and mice: systematic review and meta-analyses

Study Na Manipulation Duration Traits affected in males Traits affected in females Traits affected in both sexes Analysed sexes separately or tested interaction
Choi 2007 [56] 6 FR (75%) GD 10–birth Hepatic Hepatic Birthweight; hepatic Sexes separately
Desai 2005 [57] 12 FR (50%) GD 10–birth None None Body weight Not clear
Desai 2007 [58] 6 FR (50%) GD 10–birth None None Body weight; fat; leptin; blood lipids; glucose; insulin; glucose tolerance test; behavioural Not clear
Gutierrez-Arzapalo 2018 [59] 3–5 FR (50%) GD 11–birth Cardiovascularb Cardiovascularb Birthweight; cardiovascular Interaction
Hemmings 2005 [60] 8–11 FR (40%) GD 15–birth Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Birthweight Sexes separately
Khorram 2011 [61] 4–6 FR (50%) GD 10–birth Corticosterone; adrenala Adrenala Body weight; adrenal Sexes separately
Lee 2013 [62] 4 FR (50%) GD 10–birth Body weight None Body weight; fat; blood lipids; leptin Sexes separately
Matveyenko 2010 [63] 6 FR (50%) GD 11–21 Body weight; pancreatic None Birthweight; pancreatic Sexes separately
Molle 2015 [64] 6 FR (50%) GD 10–birth Behaviouralb; brain Behaviouralb Behavioural; brain Interaction
Munoz-Valverde 2015 [65] 12 FR (50%) GD 11–birth None None Birthweight; cardiovascular; hepatic; fat; glucose Sexes separately
Paek 2015 [66] 4 FR (50%) GD 10–birth None None Birthweight; body weight; lung Not clear
Rodríguez-Rodríguez 2015 [67] 6 FR (50%) GD 11–birth Cardiovascular; oxidative status None Birthweight; oxidative status Sexes separately
Rodríguez-Rodríguez 2017 [68] 5 FR (50%) GD 11–birth Cardiovascularb Cardiovascularb Birthweight; cardiovascular Interaction
You 2015 [69] 5 FR (50%) GD 10–birth Hepatic; homocysteine None None Sexes separately
  1. aSample size is provided as the number of dams per group (? = not stated)
  2. bManipulation had opposite effect in males and females for some traits