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Table 3. Studies in animal models and in humans on the effects of vitamin D in SLE

From: The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?

Studies in animal models Studies in humans
↓ autoantibodies production [136]
↓ skin ulceration, renal damage [137]
↓ cognitive dysfunction [139]
↓ arthritis [138]
↓ Th1, Th2, Th17 cells,
↑ Treg cells,
↓ IL-4, IL-17, and INF-γ [137]
In vitro studies:
↓ autoantibodies production [143]
↓ maturation and differentiation of DC cells (↓ CD40, MHC-II, and CD86 expression) [145]
↓ IFN-α [144]
Clinical studies:
↑ Treg cells,
↓ Th17, Th1 cells, memory B cells [150]
↓ autoantibodies production [113, 150]
↓ disease activity [151]
No effects on disease activity and serology [146,147,148,149]
  1. DC Dendritic cell, MHC-II Major histocompatibility complex class II. ↓ indicates decrease, ↑ indicates increase