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Table 2 Studies in animal models and in humans on the effects of vitamin D in RA

From: The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?

Studies in animal models

Studies in humans

↓ development and severity (e.g., hind paw swelling, bone erosion) [103, 104]

↓ autoantibodies production [102]

↓ Th1, Th17,

↑ Treg cells,

IL-17, IFN-γ [105]

In vitro studies:

↓ TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6

↓ RANKL [106]

↑ tolerogenic DCs [107]

Clinical studies:

↓ disease risk [114]

↓ disease activity [113, 115, 116]

no improvement in RA outcomes [117]

  1. RANKL Receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand, DCs Dendritic cells. ↓ indicates decrease, ↑ indicates increase