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Table 2 Studies in animal models and in humans on the effects of vitamin D in RA

From: The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?

Studies in animal models Studies in humans
↓ development and severity (e.g., hind paw swelling, bone erosion) [103, 104]
↓ autoantibodies production [102]
↓ Th1, Th17,
↑ Treg cells,
IL-17, IFN-γ [105]
In vitro studies:
↓ TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6
↓ RANKL [106]
↑ tolerogenic DCs [107]
Clinical studies:
↓ disease risk [114]
↓ disease activity [113, 115, 116]
no improvement in RA outcomes [117]
  1. RANKL Receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand, DCs Dendritic cells. ↓ indicates decrease, ↑ indicates increase