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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of participants according to T2D

From: Interactive effects of asparagine and aspartate homeostasis with sex and age for the risk of type 2 diabetes risk

Characteristics Non-T2D T2D P value
No. of subjects 1522 1032  
Duration of diabetes, years   5 (0–10)  
Age, years 46.4 ± 13.7 57.2 ± 13.8 < .0001
≥ 50 years old 640 (42.1) 785 (76.1) < .0001
Male sex 1131 (74.3) 549 (53.2) < .0001
BMI, kg/m2 25.4 ± 3.5 25.3 ± 3.9 0.3338
 BMI < 18.5 23 (1.5) 27 (2.6) 0.2012
 BMI ≥ 18.5 and < 24 504 (33.1) 354 (34.3)  
 BMI ≥ 24 and < 28 653 (42.9) 430 (41.7)  
 BMI ≥ 28 342(22.5) 221 (21.4)  
SBP, mmHg 130.9 ± 17.2 140.4 ± 24.0 < .0001
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.55 ± 0.35 1.08 ± 0.35 < .0001
 < 1.00 in male or < 1.30 in female 123 (8.1) 785 (76.1) < .0001
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.06 ± 0.70 2.89 ± 1.01 < .0001
 LDL-C > 2.60 mmol/L 1127 (74.1) 434 (42.1) < .0001
Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.51 (1.02–2.35) 1.67 (1.11–2.38) 0.0126
 Triglyceride > 1.70 644 (42.8) 361 (48.5) 0.0097
HbA1c, %   9.60 (2.38)  
Asparagine, μmol/L 70.68 (59.77–84.12) 74.85 (61.98–89.50) < .0001
 > 88, μmol/L 303 (19.9) 280 (27.1) < .0001
Aspartate, μmol/L 42.54 (29.67–58.01) 28.37 (20.91–37.56) < .0001
 < 65, μmol/L 1275 (83.8) 1014 (98.3) < .0001
Asparagine: aspartate 1.72 (1.26–2.37) 2.60 (1.99–3.55) < .0001
 ≤ 1.5 μmol/L 578 (38.0) 87 (8.4) < .0001
 > 1.5 μmol/L 944 (62.0) 945 (91.6)  
Macrovascular complications
 Prior CAD   210 (20.4)  
 Prior stroke   199 (19.3)  
Microvascular complications    
 Diabetic retinopathy   162 (15.7)  
 Diabetic nephropathy   187 (18.1)  
Diabetes medications
 Oral anti-diabetic drugs   564 (55.1)  
 Insulin   770 (74.8)  
 Statins   369 (35.9)  
Other lipid-lowering drugs   23 (2.2)  
 ACEIs   135 (13.1)  
 ARBs   134 (13.0)  
 Other anti-hypertensive drugs   309 (29.9)  
  1. Abbreviations: T2D type 2 diabetes, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, CAD coronary artery disease, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers
  2. Data are means ± standard deviation (SD) or median (interquartile range [IQR]) or n (%)
  3. P values were derived from independent-samples Student’s t test for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney U test for skewed distributions, chi-square test (or fisher test if appropriate) for categorical variables
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