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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in the MEDIA-DHF cohort according to sex

From: Sex differences in circulating proteins in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

  Global (N = 392) Male (N = 142) Female (N = 250) p value % of missing values
Age, years, median (IQR) 74.0 (67.5–80.0) 73.0 (67.0–79.0) 75.0 (68.0–81.0) 0.028 0
Recently decompensated HF, n (%) 60 (15.3%) 25 (17.6%) 35 (14.0%) 0.34 0
Smoking status, n (%)      
 Never 205 (52.7%) 39 (27.9%) 166 (66.7%) < 0.001 1
 Former 150 (38.6%) 84 (60.0%) 66 (26.5%)
 Current 34 (8.7%) 17 (12.1%) 17 (6.8%)
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 30.6 ± 6.2 30.5 ± 5.6 30.6 ± 6.5 0.79 1
Alcohol status, n (%)      
 Non-consumer 245 (63.3%) 73 (52.1%) 172 (69.6%) 0.001 1
 1–2 drinks/day 124 (32.0%) 56 (40.0%) 68 (27.5%)
 >2 drinks/day 18 (4.7%) 11 (7.9%) 7 (2.8%)
Waist circumference, cm, mean ± SD 104.8 ± 14.1 108.2 ± 13.8 102.9 ± 13.9 0.001 21
SBP, mmHg, mean ± SD 137.2 ± 23.1 137.5 ± 22.3 137.0 ± 23.5 0.83 2
DBP, mmHg, mean ± SD 74.0 ± 11.6 74.7 ± 11.1 73.7 ± 11.9 0.41 2
Pulmonary rales, n (%) 89 (23.0%) 33 (23.4%) 56 (22.8%) 0.89 1
NYHA class III/IV, n (%) 73 (18.7%) 23 (16.2%) 50 (20.1%) 0.34 0
Peripheral edema, n (%) 178 (45.4%) 74 (52.1%) 104 (41.6%) 0.045 1
Elevated JVP, n (%) 24 (6.3%) 12 (8.7%) 12 (4.9%) 0.15 3
Hepatomegaly, n (%) 13 (3.6%) 6 (4.5%) 7 (3.1%) 0.68 7
Fatigue at exertion, n (%) 305 (79.2%) 105 (75.5%) 200 (81.3%) 0.18 2
Heart rate, bpm, mean ± SD 69.4 ± 14.4 67.1 ± 12.9 70.8 ± 15.0 0.016 3
Hypertension, n (%) 342 (87.7%) 121 (86.4%) 221 (88.4%) 0.57 1
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 117 (31%) 49 (36%) 68 (28%) 0.13 3
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 154 (39.3%) 67 (47.2%) 87 (34.8%) 0.016 0
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 226 (58.2%) 75 (53.6%) 151 (60.9%) 0.16 1
Previous HF hospitalization, n (%) 137 (35.5%) 65 (46.8%) 72 (29.1%) < 0.001 2
CAD, n (%) 128 (33.7%) 73 (52.9%) 55 (22.7%) < 0.001 3
Stroke or TIA, n (%) 44 (11.3%) 14 (10.0%) 30 (12.0%) 0.54 1
Peripheral artery disease, n (%) 34 (8.9%) 18 (13.0%) 16 (6.5%) 0.030 2
COPD, n (%) 71 (18.4%) 30 (21.4%) 41 (16.7%) 0.25 2
Laboratory values, mean ± SD      
 LDL, mg/dL 99.8 ± 37.1 89.8 ± 30.2 104.5 ± 39.1 < 0.001 20
 HDL, mg/dL 53.7 ± 19.7 47.3 ± 15.5 56.8 ± 20.8 < 0.001 19
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 176.1 ± 43.1 160.2 ± 35.1 183.9 ± 44.6 < 0.001 17
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.0 ± 1.6 13.4 ± 1.8 12.8 ± 1.5 < 0.001 12
 Anemia, n (%) 106 (30.6%) 46 (39.0%) 60 (26.3%) 0.019 12
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 66.4 ± 23.1 66.4 ± 23.7 66.4 ± 22.8 1.00 6
 NT-proBNP (in NPX) 4.2 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 1.3 0.042 0
Medication prescription rates, n (%)      
 ACEi or ARB 319 (81.4%) 114 (80.3%) 205 (82.0%) 0.67 0
 Beta blockers 286 (73.0%) 111 (78.2%) 175 (70.0%) 0.080 0
 Thiazide diuretics 87 (22.3%) 22 (15.5%) 65 (26.1%) 0.015 0
 Loop diuretics 235 (59.9%) 89 (62.7%) 146 (58.4%) 0.41 0
 MRA 43 (11.0%) 16 (11.3%) 27 (10.8%) 0.87 0
 Aspirin 159 (40.6%) 64 (45.1%) 95 (38.0%) 0.17 0
 Insulin 52 (13.3%) 26 (18.3%) 26 (10.4%) 0.028 0
 Statin 241 (61.5%) 96 (67.6%) 145 (58.0%) 0.060 0
 Oral anticoagulants 161 (41.1%) 57 (40.1%) 104 (41.6%) 0.78 0
  1. Legend: HF heart failure, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CAD coronary artery disease, PAD peripheral artery disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSAS obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, TIA transient ischemic attack, DBP diastolic blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, NYHA New York Heart Association, JVP jugular venous pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NPX normalized protein expression, ASA acetylsalicylic acid, ACEi ACE-inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BB beta blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, E/e’ the ratio of mitral inflow velocity and early mitral annulus velocity, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, TAPSE tricuspidal annular plane systolic excursion, E/A ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, LVEDVi left ventricular end-diastolic volume index, LVESVi left ventricular end-systolic volume index, LAVI left atrial volume index, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
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