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Fig. 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 1

From: Sex differences in circulating proteins in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Fig. 1

Network analyses for the visualization of pathways and protein interactions between circulating proteins associated with sex in MEDIA-DHF. The proteins that were higher expressed in female vs. male patients may be linked to pathways involved in lipid metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and hemostasis. The proteins that were higher expressed in male vs. female patients may be linked to pathways such as extracellular matrix organization and developmental processes. Common pathways between the proteins seem signal transduction, protein metabolism and cytokine signaling. The FHF-GKB complex network was queried in order to explore pathways and proteins that could connect together biomarker nodes of interest. Queries were expressed according to query patterns defining a path structure between two nodes such as BM-BM, BM-pathway-BM, and BM-pathway, where the BM nodes are taken from a list of interest. The resulting graphs were merged in a figure illustrating all possible paths not longer than two edges, connecting proteins through pathways and proteins. This graph depicts biomarker-pathway—protein interactions. There were no direct interactions between proteins. Blue: proteins higher expressed in males. Pink: proteins higher expressed in females. Green: pathways

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