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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Roles for androgens in mediating the sex differences of neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses

Fig. 2

Effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites on HPA axis and behavioral stress responses. This figure describes enzymes involved in the conversion of T and its metabolites and predicted effects produced by binding AR, ERα, ERβ, and GABA receptors. Binding of AR or ERβ is expected to decrease HPA axis and behavioral stress responses. In contrast, actions at ERα increase the HPA axis response to stress while effects on anxiety-like behaviors are mixed and depend on reproductive status among other factors. Effects of 3α-diol on the HPA axis are currently unknown. HSD = hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3α-Diol = 5α androstane 3α, 17β Diol; 3β Diol = 5α androstane 3β, 17β Diol, RL-HSD = 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase like 3α-HSD

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