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Table 1 Sample characteristics by APOE4 carrier status and sex

From: Sex differences in Alzheimer’s-related Tau biomarkers and a mediating effect of testosterone

 APOE4− (n = 79)APOE4+ (n = 93)p value (effect size)aAPOE4-APOE4+
   Women n = 25Men n = 54p value (effect size)aWomen n = 34Men n = 59p value (effect size)a
Age, Mean (SD)76.6 (7.2)74.0 (6.7).02 (.37)77.0 (6.3)76.4 (7.7).7471.3 (7.4)75.6 (5.7).002 (.65)
Years of education, Mean (SD)15.9 (3.0)15.3 (3.2).2015.7 (2.7)16.0 (3.1).6414.7 (2.9)15.6 (3.4).17
White, n (%)76 (96.2%)91 (97.8%).5425 (100%)51 (94.4%).4932 (94.1%)59 (100%).06
Cognitive status  < .001 (.40)  .26  .65
Cognitively normal, n (%)22 (27.8%)3 (3.2%) 10 (40.0%)12 (22.2%) 1 (2.9%)2 (3.4%) 
MCI, n (%)45 (57.0%)52 (55.9%) 12 (48.0%)33 (61.1%) 17 (50.0%)35 (59.3%) 
AD dementia, n (%)12 (15.2%)38 (40.9%) 3 (12.0%)9 (16.7%) 16 (47.1%)22 (37.3%) 
Global cognition (MMSE), Mean (SD)27.1 (2.2)25.8 (2.5)< .001 (.55)27.6 (2.2)26.9 (2.2).1525.6 (2.5)25.9 (2.5).56
BMI, Mean (SD)26.5 (4.0)25.8 (3.7).2825.7 (4.9)26.8 (3.5).2425.5 (4.0)26.0 (3.6).55
Self-reported history of cardiovascular events, n (%)61 (77.2%)62 (66.7%).1316 (64.0%)45 (83.3%).0623 (67.6%)39 (66.1%).88
Pulse pressureb, Mean (SD)61.0 (18.1)59.1 (14.7).4161.9 (23.9)60.8 (15.0).8058.9 (15.8)59.2 (14.1).93
Plasma total testosterone levelc (ng/mL), Mean (SD)0.2 (0.4)0.1 (0.5).09− 0.3 (0.4)0.5 (0.1)< .001 (2.74)− 0.4 (0.4)0.4 (0.2)< .001 (2.53)
Plasma free testosterone levelc (ng/mL), Mean (SD)13.4 (24.8)6.5 (27.7).09− 16.9 (19.5)27.5 (9.8)< .001 (2.9)− 22.0 (22.7)23.0 (13.0)< .001 (2.4)
CSF p-Tau181 level (pg/mL), Mean (SD)26.8 (13.1)35.9 (17.2)< .001 (.59)23.5 (8.6)28.3 (14.5).1343.7 (22.6)31.5 (11.1).001 (0.68)
CSF Aβ1-42 level (pg/mL), Mean (SD)1240.4 (702.9)639.1 (292.2)< .001 (1.12)1286.7 (765.1)1218.9 (678.7).69658.7 (627.8)627.8 (327.0).63
  1. aEffect sizes are provided for significant differences; Cohen’s d is provided for mean differences (0.2 = small, 0.5 = medium, 0.8 = large) and a phi coefficient is provided for differences in proportions (0.1 = small, 0.3 = medium, 0.5 = large)
  2. bPulse pressure = systolic − diastolic blood pressure
  3. cTestosterone levels were normalized based on a Box-Cox transformation. MCI mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APOE4 apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele, MMSE Mini Mental Status Examination, BMI body mass index, CSF cerebrospinal fluid