Skip to main content

Table 2 Concordance between sex-biased PKs and VigiBase sex ratios

From: Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women

WHO ATC category Drug name/PK biasa PK measureb VB ratioc Concordance
Alimentary tract, metabolism Ondansetron AUC, Cmax 2.14 Concordant
Blood and blood forming organs Icatibant AUC, Cmax 3.18 Concordant
Cardiovascular system Metoprolol AUC, Cmax 1.26 Concordant
Labetalol Cmax, ClT 1.50 Concordant
Nifedipine ClT 1.29 Discordant1
Pitavastatin AUC, Cmax 1.12 Discordant2
Systemic hormonal preparations Methylprednisolone AUC, t1/2, ClT 1.38 Discordant1
Musculoskeletal Ibuprofen AUC,Cmax, t1/2, ClT 1.46 Discordant1
Anesthetics, analgesics Lignocaine ClT 1.64 Condordant
Propofol AUC,ClT 1.45 Concordant
Butorphanol AUC, Cmax 3.23 Concordant
Paracetamol ClT 1.68 Concordant
Anti-epileptics Ezogabine AUC, Cmax, ClT 0.90 Discordant2
Psycholeptics Clobazam t1/2 1.11 Discordant2
Sertindole AUC, Cmax 1.06 Discordant2
Thiothixene ClT 1.35 Concordant
Oxazepam ClT 1.31 Concordant
Temazepam t1/2, ClT 1.34 Concordant
Zopiclone AUC, Cmax 1.55 Concordant
Psychoanaleptics Memantine SysExp 1.50 Condordant
Desipramine AUC, ClT 1.59 Concordant
Clomipramine ClT 1.57 Concordant
Paroxetine ClT 2.00 Concordant
Fluvoxamine ClT 1.73 Concordant
Mirtazapine ClT 1.53 Concordant
Respiratory Cetirizine ClT 1.76 Concordant
  1. PK abbreviations: AUC area under the curve, Cmax maximum circulating concentration, Tmax time required to reach Cmax value, t1/2 elimination half-life, ClT clearance time, exposure, or plasma concentration after a fixed time interval, SysExp systemic exposure, DurAbs duration of absorption
  2. aFont style of drug name indicates direction of PK drug exposure bias: (normal: F > M; bold: M > F)
  3. bFont style of PK measure indicates direction of greater PK drug exposure: (normal: F > M; bold: M > F; italic: inconsistent)
  4. cF-to-M reporting ratio of suspected ADRs. Threshold for designation of sex bias = ± 20%
  5. 1False positive
  6. 2False negative