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Fig. 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 1

From: Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage

Fig. 1

Role of estrogen in sex differences in hypertension and related target organ damage. The influence of estrogen leads to alterations in mechanisms regulating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), body mass, endothelial (dys) function, oxidative stress and salt sensitivity; all associated with a crucial inflammatory state and influenced by genetic factors, ultimately resulting in cardiac, vascular and renal damage in hypertension in a sex-specific manner

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