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Table 1 Sex differences in adverse reactions, immune responses, and efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs in humans

From: Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe

Virus Antiviral drug/vaccine Sex-specific features Comments References
HIV HAART M < F CD4+ T cell count, adverse reactions, fat accumulation, drug concentration, virus clearance, hepatitis [102,103,104,105,106,107,108]
  HAART M > F Fat loss, survival [103, 109]
HSV-2 HSV-2 gD vaccine M < F Humoral immune responses, cell-mediated immune responses, vaccine efficacy [110,111,112]
  Acyclovir M < F Frequency of prescription, adverse reaction [113, 114]
  Acyclovir M > F Reduction of virus shedding [114]
HBV HBV vaccine M < F Humoral immune responses [115,116,117,118]
HCV Pegylated interferon alpha/ribavirin M < F Adverse reaction, sustained virologic response1 [119,120,121]
Seasonal influenza viruses TIV vaccine M < F Humoral immune responses, adverse reactions [122,123,124,125]
  Oseltamivir M < F Drug clearance and metabolism2 [126]
  Oseltamivir M > F Alleviation of symptoms, reduction of viral load [127]
  Zanamivir M = F Alleviation of symptoms, reduction of viral load [127]
  1. HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HSV herpes simplex virus, TIV trivalent inactivated influenza virus. 1premenopausal females only, 2tested in neonates only