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Table 3 Multivariate comparisons of SGA and SGA subgroups compared to uncomplicated pregnancies

From: Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study

 All SGAMale SGAFemale SGAAsymmetric SGASymmetric SGA
 n = 633n = 313n = 320n = 262n = 310
Pre-pregnancy     
 Maternal birthweight ↓ 200 gr1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.1–1.2)
 Leafy veg intake pre-pregnancy 3/day0.5 (0.3–0.8)0.6 (0.31.1)0.4 (0.2–0.8)0.7 (0.41.3)0.3 (0.1–0.7)
 Fruit intake pre-pregnancy ≤ 1/week1.5 (1.1–2.0)1.5 (1.0–2.2)1.6 (1.1–2.2)1.4 (0.92.1)1.7 (1.2–2.5)
15 weeks’ gestation     
 Maternal age ↑ 5 years1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.0 (1.01.2)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.2 (1.01.3)
 Maternal head circumference ↑ 1 cm0.9 (0.9–1.0)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.9 (0.9–1.0)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.9 (0.9–1.0)
 Maternal BMI ↑ 5 units1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.1 (1.01.3)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.1 (0.91.2)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 Mean arterial pressure ↑ 5 units mmHg1.2 (1.2–1.3)1.3 (1.2–1.4)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.2 (1.1–1.3)
 Binge drinking or recreational drug use1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.3 (1.01.7)1.5 (1.1–1.9)1.3 (1.01.8)1.2 (0.91.5)
 Rhesus negative blood group0.8 (0.6–1.0)0.8 (0.61.2)0.7 (0.51.0)0.7 (0.5––1.1)0.8 (0.61.1)
 Random glucose ↑ 1 unit0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.8 (0.7–1.0)0.9 (0.81.1)0.9 (0.81.1)0.9 (0.8–1.0)
 Daily vigorous exercise3.4 (1.6–7.1)4.2 (1.8–10.0)2.7 (1.1–7.1)1.6 (0.5–5.7)4.4 (1.9–10.3)
 Tertiary student2.0 (1.2–3.2)2.4 (1.3–4.3)1.6 (0.83.1)2.5 (1.3–4.6)1.8 (0.93.6)
20 weeks’ gestation     
 Smoking > 15 weeks’ gestation1.8 (1.4–2.4)1.9 (1.4–2.8)1.8 (1.2–2.5)1.9 (1.3–2.8)2.2 (1.5–3.1)
 Perceived stress score at 20 weeks’ ↑ 51.1 (1.0–1.2)1.1 (1.01.2)1.1 (1.01.2)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.0 (0.41.1)
 Uterine Doppler mean RI ↑0.11.6 (1.4–1.7)1.7 (1.5–1.9)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.6 (1.4–1.8)
 Umbilical Doppler RI ↑0.11.3 (1.1–1.5)1.0 (0.81.3)1.6 (1.3–1.9)1.2 (1.01.5)1.4 (1.1–1.7)
  1. Results are expressed as OR (95%CI) with uncomplicated pregnancies as the referent group. Bold indicate that the OR is significant