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Table 2 Univariate analysis at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation and after delivery in SGA infants

From: Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study

 Males
N = 313
Females
N = 320
p valueAsymmetric
N = 262
Symmetric
N = 310
p value% missing
Pre-pregnancy       
 Maternal birthweight (g)3160 (568)3179 (483)0.2093148 (542)3167 (527)0.6806.5
 Leafy vegetable intake ≥ 3/day11 (3.5)7 (2.2)0.31511 (4.2)6 (1.9)0.1120
 Fruit intake ≤ 1/week38 (12.1)45 (14.1)0.47429 (11.1)46 (14.8)0.1830
15 weeks’ gestation       
 Maternal age29 (5.8)28 (2.8)0.07529 (5.4)28 (6.0)0.2860
 Maternal head circumference (cm)55.4 (1.8)55.6 (1.8)0.36355.4 (1.8)55.6 (1.8)0.3700.2
 Ethnicity  0.425  0.0010
 Caucasian277 (88.5)287 (89.7) 226 (86.3)284 (91.6)  
 Asian9 (2.9)7 (2.2) 11 (4.2)5 (1.6)  
 Indian10 (3.2)9 (2.8) 13 (5.0)2 (0.6)  
 African3 (1.0)5 (1.6) 5 (1.9)1 (0.3)  
 Other14 (4.5)12 (3.8) 7 (2.7)18 (5.8)  
BMI  0.735  0.0300.3
< 2031 (9.9)25 (7.8) 20 (7.6)28 (9.1)  
 20–25130 (41.7)142 (44.5) 124 (47.3)124 (40.3)  
 25.1–29.993 (29.8)90 (28.2) 81 (30.9)84 (23.4)  
 ≥ 3058 (18.6)62 (19.2) 37 (14.1)72 (23.4)  
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)81 (8.8)80 (8.2)0.54880 (8.4)81 (8.6)0.4270
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)109 [11.0]108 [10.6]0.612108 [10.0]109 [11.6]0.3480
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67 [8.8]66 [8.1]0.56166 [8.9]67 [8.3]0.5530
 Random glucose5.4 (0.9)5.2 (1.0)0.1945.2 (1.0)5.2 (0.9)0.7961.6
 Rhesus negative blood group38 (12.3)35 (11.0)0.60428 (10.8)37 (12.0)0.6540.8
 Socioeconomic index45 [28–50]37 [26–50]0.05445 [29–50]36 [22–50]0.0100
 Daily vigorous exercise8 (2.6)6 (1.9)0.5643 (1.1)9 (2.9)0.1380.8
20 weeks’ gestation       
Smoking > 15 weeks gestation56 (17.9)65 (20.3)0.43946 (17.6)68 (21.9)0.1920
Uterine Doppler RI0.61 (0.11)0.60 (0.11)0.0810.60 (0.11)0.61 (0.11)0.3387.1
Umbilical Doppler RI0.73 (0.06)0.75 (0.07)0.0030.74 (0.07)0.74 (0.06)0.2994.3
Umbilical Doppler RI > 90th percentile29 (9.6)54 (17.8)0.00334 (13.4)41 (13.9)0.8884.3
Ultrasound HC/AC > 95th percentile22 (7.2)23 (7.3)0.96616 (6.2)24 (7.9)0.4441.7
Perceived stress score13 (6.4)13 (6.3)0.88814 (6.5)13 (6.3)0.0513.5
Pregnancy outcome       
 Pre-eclampsia85 (27.2)81 (25.3)0.59874 (28.2)81 (26.1)0.5710
 Gestational diabetes5 (1.6)5 (1.6)0.5135 (1.9)5 (1.6)0.9620
 Induction of labour120 (38.3)110 (34.4)0.30091 (34.7)122 (39.4)0.2550
 Emergency caesarean section56 (8.8)44 (7.0)0.15343 (7.5)54 (9.4)0.7490
Neonatal characteristics       
 Birthweight (g)2780 [2483—2990]2720 [2433—2970]0.1122745 [2474—2970]2780 [2438—2986]0.9610
 Customized birthweight percentile4.8 (3.0)4.7 (3.0)0.6944.4 (2.8)5.0 (3.0)0.0180
 Gestational age (days)272 (24.1)272 (25.0)0.872276 (15.6)270 (26.4)0.0030
 Spontaneous preterm birth (< 37 weeks)10 (3.2)16 (5.0)0.2536 (2.3)17 (5.5)0.0530
Ponderal Index2.42 [2.24—2.59]2.48 [2.30—2.64]0.0132.21 [2.10 - 2.37]2.60 [2.51—2.72]0.0009.6
Ponderal Index < 10th percentile for gestation147 (51.2)115 (40.4)0.009   9.6
Head circumference (cm)33.2 (2.7)32.8 (2.4)0.00033.3 (2.1)32.7 (2.8)0.0105.4
Length (cm)48.5 [46.5–50.0]48.0 [46.0–49.0]0.00449.35 [48.0–51.0]46.8 [45.1–48.3]0.0009.6
Male   147 (56.1)140 (45.2)0.0090
Stillbirth9 (2.9)11 (3.4)0.6862 (0.8)10 (3.2)0.0410
5-min Apgar < 77 (2.3)8 (2.6)0.8293 (1.2)11 (3.7)0.0604.4
Neonatal death0 (0.0)1 (0.3)0.3220 (0.0)0 (0.0)n/a0
Admitted to nursery80 (25.6)63 (19.7)0.07756 (24.1)75 (24.2)0.4240
  1. All values are mean (SD) and median [IQR] for continuous variables and absolute numbers (percentages) for categorical variables. BMI body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). RI resistance index (calculated as peak systolic flow minus end diastolic flow divided by peak systolic flow). HC/AC head circumference to abdominal circumference ratio