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Table 1 Maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, and outcome

From: Sex- and growth-specific characteristics of small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study

 All participantsUncomplicatedSGAp value% missing
 n = 5628n = 3376n = 633  
Pre-pregnancy
 Maternal birthweight (g)3308 (547)3350 (529)3170 (526)0.0005.2
 Leafy vegetable intake ≥ 3/day337 (6.0)239 (7.1)18 (2.8)0.0000
 Fruit intake ≤ 1/week500 (8.9)250 (7.4)83 (13.1)0.0000
15 weeks’ gestation     
 Maternal age (years)29 [25–32]30 [25–33]29 [24–33]0.3360
 Maternal head circumference (cm)55.7 (1.7)55.8 (1.7)55.5 (1.8)0.0000.2
 Ethnicity   0.0280
 Caucasian5061 (89.9)3059 (90.6)564 (89.1)  
 Asian170 (3.0)110 (3.3)16 (2.5)  
 Indian134 (2.4)65 (1.9)19 (3.0)  
 African65 (1.2)27 (0.8)8 (1.3)  
 Other198 (3.5)115 (3.4)26 (4.1)  
BMI   0.0000.9
 < 20429 (7.6)242 (7.2)56 (8.9)  
20–252809 (49.9)1842 (55.1)272 (43.1)  
25.1–29.91500 (26.7)860 (25.7)183 (29.0)  
 ≥ 30842 (15.0)398 (11.9)120 (19.0)  
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)79 (7.8)78 (7.2)80 (8.5)0.0000
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)107 [100–113]105 [99–111]108 [100–115]0.0000
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)64 [60–70]63 [60–69]65 [60–72]0.0000
 Random glucose (mmol/l)5.3 (1.0)5.3 (0.9)5.2 (0.9)0.0641.3
 Rhesus negative blood group838 (14.9)510 (15.1)73 (11.6)0.0220.2
 Socioeconomic index45 [28–70]45 [29–50]43 [27–50]0.0000
 Daily vigorous exercise54 (1.0)25 (0.7)14 (2.2)0.0010.4
 20 weeks’ data     
 Smoking > 15 weeks' gestation607 (10.8)309 (9.2)121 (19.1)0.0000
 Uterine Doppler mean RI0.57 (0.10)0.56 (0.10)0.61 (0.11)0.0006.1
 Umbilical Doppler RI0.73 (0.06)0.73 (0.06)0.74 (0.07)0.0004.1
 Umbilical Doppler RI > 90th percentile516 (9.2)238 (8.6)109 (17.2)0.0004.1
 Ultrasound HC/AC > 95th percentile273 (4.9)153 (4.6)45 (7.2)0.0062.3
 Perceived stress score12 (6.5)12 (6.4)13 (6.3)0.0013.1
 Pregnancy outcome     
 Pre-eclampsia374 (6.6)0 (0.0)166 (26.2)0.0000
 Gestational diabetes143 (2.5)0 (0.0)10 (1.6)0.0000.3
Neonatal characteristics     
 Birthweight (g)3401 (591.5)3594 (398.6)2608 (578.0)0.0000.3
 Customized birthweight percentile47.6 (29.1)54.2 (25.2)4.7 (3.0)0.0000.4
 Gestational age (days)277 (17.7)281 (8.1)272 (24.5)0.0000
 Spontaneous preterm birth (< 37 weeks)236 (4.2)0 (0.0)26 (4.1)0.0000
 Ponderal index (g/m3)2.68 [2.48–2.88]2.71 [2.53–2.89]2.45 [2.28–2.62]0.0006.0
 Ponderal index < 10th percentile for gestation1084 (19.3)565 (17.6)262 (45.8)0.0006.0
 Stillbirth37 (0.7)0 (0.0)20 (3.2)0.0000.3
  1. All values are mean (SD) and median [IQR] for continuous variables and absolute numbers (percentages) for categorical variables. BMI body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). RI resistance index (calculated as peak systolic flow minus end diastolic flow divided by peak systolic flow). HC/AC head circumference to abdominal circumference ratio