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Table 3 Pooled odds ratios of the occurrence of maternal pregnancy complications by study characteristics

From: Fetal sex and maternal pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup No. studies Participants OR (95% CI) p value for heterogeneity
Gestational hypertension
 Geographical location
  Western 12 5.511.490 1.02 (0.98;1.06) 0.29
  Non-Western 5 125.016 0.99 (0.95;1.02)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 9 31.003 0,98 (0.86;1.10) 0.56
  ≥ 10.000 8 5.605.503 1,01 (0.98;1.05)
 Study design
  Case-control 2 444 0.86 (0.35;2,07) 0.57
  Retrospective cohort 11 5.508.737 1.02 (0.98;1.05)
  Prospective cohort 4 127.325 0.98 (0.89;1.08)
 Quality score
  < 7 11 5.489.916 1.03 (1.01;1.05) < 0.001
  ≥ 7 6 146.590 0.94 (0.82;1.06)
Pre-eclampsia (total)
 Geographical location
  Western 22 3.970.495 1.02 (1.00;1.05) 0,23
  Non-Western 15 636.671 0.93 (0.83;1,04)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 18 42.194 0.92 (0.82;1.04) 0.27
  ≥ 10.000 19 4.548.703 1,00 (0.96;1.03)
 Study design
  Case-control 9 18.593 0.94 (0.75;1.02) 0.50
  Retrospective cohort 24 4.461.201 1,00 (0.96;1.04)
  Prospective cohort 4 127.372 0.90 (0.81;1.00)
 Quality score
  < 7 22 1.539.869 0.97 (0.93;1.02) 0.71
  ≥ 7 7 3.067.297 0.95 (0.88;1.02)
Eclampsia
 Geographical location
  Western 5 4.820.821 1.02 (1.00;1.04) 0.05
  Non-Western 2 110.156 0.82 (0.57;1.18)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 1 434 0.65 (0.45;0.94) 0.02
  ≥ 10.000 6 4.930.534 1.01 (0.99;1.04)
 Study design
  Case-control 1 434 0.65 (0.45;0.95) 0.01
  Retrospective cohort 5 4.820.821 0.95 (0.88;1.02)
  Prospective cohort 1 109.722 1.02 (1.00;1.04)
Quality score
  < 7 6 4.920.963 1.00 (0.95;1.04) 0.84
  ≥ 7 1 10.014 0.92 (0.42;2.01)
Gestational diabetes
 Geographical location
  Western 18 1.728.325 1.03 (1.01;1.05) 0.13
  Non-Western 10 380.388 1.07 (1.03;1.12)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 13 16.484 1.12 (1.02;1.24) 0.13
  ≥ 10.000 15 2.092.229 1.04 (1.02;1.06)
 Study design
  Case-control 6 1.092 1.15 (0.95;1.39) 0.66
  Retrospective cohort 14 2.105.377 1.04 (1.02;1.06)
  Prospective cohort 8 2.246 1.16 (1.02;1.31)
 Quality score
  < 7 21 1.092.636 1.05 (1.02;1.09) 0.75
  ≥ 7 7 1.016.077 1.04 (1.02;1.06)
Placental abruption
 Geographical location
  Western 7 2.876.604 1.03 (0.86;1.23) 0.45
  Non-Western 6 227.068 1.10 (0.93;1.31)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 4 7.801 1.31 (0.85;2.02) 0.4
  ≥ 10.000 9 3.095.871 1.04 (0.90;1.22)
 Study design
  Case-control 2 1.090 2.34 (1.25;4.35) 0.08
  Retrospective cohort 10 2.992.860 1.05 (0.90;1.22)
  Prospective cohort 1 109.722 0.98 (0.83;1.15)
 Quality score
  < 7 6 224.641 1.21 (0.96;1.51) 0.2
  ≥ 7 7 2.879.031 1.01 (0.85;1.19)