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Table 2 Pooled odds ratios of the occurrence of maternal pregnancy complications by study characteristics

From: Fetal sex and maternal pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup No. of studies Participants OR (95% CI) p value for heterogeneity
Gestational hypertension
 Geographical location
  Western 11 5.511.340 1.02 (0.98;1.06) 0.3
  Non-Western 5 125.016 0.99 (0.95;1.02)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 8 30.853 1.01 (0.98;1.05) 0.47
  ≥ 10.000 8 5.605.503 0.96 (0.85;1.10)
 Study design
  Case-control 1 294 0.54 (0.26;1.14) 0.19
  Retrospective cohort 11 5.508.737 1.02 (0.98;1.05)
  Prospective cohort 4 127.325 0.98 (0.89;1.08)
 Quality score
  < 7 11 5.489.916 1.03 (1.01;1.05) < 0.001
  ≥ 7 5 146.440 0.92 (0.81;1.05)
Pre-eclampsia (total)
 Geographical location
  Western 15 3.472.444 1.03 (1.00;1.05) < 0.001
  Non-Western 14 541.647 0.90 (0.83;0.97)
 No. of participants
  < 10.000 13 39.373 0.92 (0.78;1.08) 0.84
  ≥ 10.000 16 3.974.718 0.97 (0.94;1.01)
 Study design
  Case-control 7 2.174 0.86 (0.64;1.16) 0.12
  Retrospective cohort 18 3.884.545 0.98 (0.95;1.02)
  Prospective cohort 4 127.372 0.90 (0.81;1.00)
 Quality score
  < 7 22 1.538.622 0.97 (0.93;1.02) 0.71
  ≥ 7 7 2.475.469 0.95 (0.88;1.02)
Eclampsia
 Geographical location
  Western 5 4.820.821 1.02 (1.00;1.04) 0.05
  Non-Western 2 110.156 0.82 (0.57;1.18)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 1 434 0.65 (0.45;0.94) 0.02
  ≥ 10.000 6 4.930.534 1.01 (0.99;1.04)
 Study design
  Case-control 1 434 0.65 (0.45;0.95) 0.01
  Retrospective cohort 5 4.820.821 0.95 (0.88;1.02)
  Prospective cohort 1 109.722 1.02 (1.00;1.04)
 Quality score
  < 7 6 4.920.963 1.00 (0.95;1.04) 0.84
  ≥ 7 1 10.014 0.92 (0.42;2.01)
Gestational diabetes
 Geographical location
  Western 16 1.632.560 1.03 (1.01;1.05) 0.17
  Non-Western 8 379.756 1.09 (1.02;1.15)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 10 15.111 1.16 (1.02;1.33) 0.14
  ≥ 10.000 14 1.997.205 1.04 (1.02;1.06)
 Study design
  Case-control 5 1.062 1.15 (0.94;1.40) 0.66
  Retrospective cohort 12 2.009.749 1.04 (1.02;1.06)
  Prospective cohort 7 1.505 1.16 (1.01;1.33)
 Quality score
  < 7 18 1.091.263 1.05 (1.02;1.09) 0.75
  ≥ 7 6 921.053 1.04 (1.01;1.07)
Placental abruption
 Geographical location
  Western 7 2.876.604 1.03 (0.86;1.23) 0.45
  Non-Western 6 227.068 1.10 (0.93;1.31)
 No of participants
  < 10.000 4 7.801 1.31 (0.85;2.02) 0.4
  ≥ 10.000 9 3.095.871 1.04 (0.90;1.22)
 Study design
  Case-control 2 1.090 2.34 (1.25;4.35) 0.08
  Retrospective cohort 10 2.992.860 1.05 (0.90;1.22)
  Prospective cohort 1 109.722 0.98 (0.83;1.15)
 Quality score
  < 7 6 224.641 1.21 (0.96;1.51) 0.2
  ≥ 7 7 2.879.031 1.01 (0.85;1.19)