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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of the clusters in female population, Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (1999–2014)

From: Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran

Variables Cluster 1
(n = 946)
Cluster 2
(n = 639)
Cluster 3
(n = 764)
Cluster 4
(n = 302)
Cluster 5
(n = 804)
Cluster 6
(n = 270)
Cluster 7
(n = 939)
P value
Age (years) 42.4(12.1) 38.5(6.6) 43.3(9.8) 46.7(10.5) 52.0(10.9) 48.2(10.9) 53.6(10.4) <0.001
Education
 Level 1 (0–8 years) 724(76.5) 542(84.8) 637(83.4) 233(77.2) 580(72.1) 203(75.2) 649(69.1) <0.001
 Level 2 (9–11 years) 128(13.6) 73(11.4) 66(8.6) 23(7.6) 24(3.0) 10(3.7) 24(2.6)
 Level 3 (> 12 years) 94(9.9) 24(3.8) 61(8.0) 46 (15.2) 200 (24.9) 57(21.1) 266(28.3)
Physical activity level
 Low physical activity 681(72.0) 425(66.5) 536(70.2) 205(67.9) 580(72.1) 186(68.9) 700(74.5) 0.019
Smoking
 Never 710(75.1) 468(73.2) 541(70.8) 228(75.5) 631(78.5) 177(65.6) 722(76.9) <0.001
 Past 14(1.5) 7(1.1) 14(1.9) 2(0.7) 31(3.8) 13(4.8) 32(3.4)
 Passive 168(17.7) 119(18.7) 169(22.1) 58(19.2) 118(14.7) 63(23.3) 153(16.3)
 Current 54(5.7) 45(7.0) 40(5.2) 14(4.6) 24(3.0) 17(6.3) 32(3.4)  
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6(1.8) 29.2(3.2) 29.6(3.4) 30.3(4.1) 30.6(3.8) 30.4(4.5) 30.4(4.7) <0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.0(1.3) 4.8(0.3) 4.8(.3) 0.3(2.4) 4.9(0.4) 7.1(2.3) 7.9(3.2) <0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.1(1.1) 4.4(0.5) 6.2(0.9) 4.6(0.4) 6.4(0.9) 4.6(0.4) 6.6(1.1) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 111.2(16.5) 106.5(7.5) 108.1(7.7) 132.7(13.0) 137.1(16.5) 125.3(17.5) 135.1(22.5) <0.001
Mean number of risk factors 0.8(0.7) 1.0(0.0) 2.0 (0.0) 2.0 (0.0) 3.0 (0.0) 2.5(0.5) 3.6(0.4) <0.001
HBMI (0.0) 639(100) 764(100) 302(100) 804(100) 250(92.6) 850(90.5) <0.001
HSBP 210(22.2) 0(0.0) 0 (0.0) 302(100) 804(100) 161(59.6) 718(76.5) <0.001
HTC 436(46.1) 0(0.0) 764(100) 0(0.0) 804(100) 0(0.0) 939(100) <0.001
HFPG 73(7.7) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 270(100) 939(100) <0.001
Number of events 31 7 20 8 27 16 24  
Incident rate of cancers (CI), per 1000 person years 2.6(1.8–3.7) 0.8(0.4–1.8) 2.1(1.3–3.2) 2.1(1.0–4.2) 2.6(1.8–3.8) 5.0 (3.0–8.2) 2.1(1.4–3.1)  
  1. Figures are presented as mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables, and number (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. CI confidence interval, HBMI high body mass index, HFPG high fasting plasma glucose, HTC high total cholesterol, HDL-C high systolic blood pressure
  3. *P values are based on ANOVA test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables