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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of the clusters in female population, Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (1999–2014)

From: Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran

VariablesCluster 1
(n = 946)
Cluster 2
(n = 639)
Cluster 3
(n = 764)
Cluster 4
(n = 302)
Cluster 5
(n = 804)
Cluster 6
(n = 270)
Cluster 7
(n = 939)
P value
Age (years)42.4(12.1)38.5(6.6)43.3(9.8)46.7(10.5)52.0(10.9)48.2(10.9)53.6(10.4)<0.001
Education
 Level 1 (0–8 years)724(76.5)542(84.8)637(83.4)233(77.2)580(72.1)203(75.2)649(69.1)<0.001
 Level 2 (9–11 years)128(13.6)73(11.4)66(8.6)23(7.6)24(3.0)10(3.7)24(2.6)
 Level 3 (> 12 years)94(9.9)24(3.8)61(8.0)46 (15.2)200 (24.9)57(21.1)266(28.3)
Physical activity level
 Low physical activity681(72.0)425(66.5)536(70.2)205(67.9)580(72.1)186(68.9)700(74.5)0.019
Smoking
 Never710(75.1)468(73.2)541(70.8)228(75.5)631(78.5)177(65.6)722(76.9)<0.001
 Past14(1.5)7(1.1)14(1.9)2(0.7)31(3.8)13(4.8)32(3.4)
 Passive168(17.7)119(18.7)169(22.1)58(19.2)118(14.7)63(23.3)153(16.3)
 Current54(5.7)45(7.0)40(5.2)14(4.6)24(3.0)17(6.3)32(3.4) 
BMI (kg/m2)22.6(1.8)29.2(3.2)29.6(3.4)30.3(4.1)30.6(3.8)30.4(4.5)30.4(4.7)<0.001
FPG (mmol/L)5.0(1.3)4.8(0.3)4.8(.3)0.3(2.4)4.9(0.4)7.1(2.3)7.9(3.2)<0.001
TC (mmol/L)5.1(1.1)4.4(0.5)6.2(0.9)4.6(0.4)6.4(0.9)4.6(0.4)6.6(1.1)<0.001
SBP (mmHg)111.2(16.5)106.5(7.5)108.1(7.7)132.7(13.0)137.1(16.5)125.3(17.5)135.1(22.5)<0.001
Mean number of risk factors0.8(0.7)1.0(0.0)2.0 (0.0)2.0 (0.0)3.0 (0.0)2.5(0.5)3.6(0.4)<0.001
HBMI(0.0)639(100)764(100)302(100)804(100)250(92.6)850(90.5)<0.001
HSBP210(22.2)0(0.0)0 (0.0)302(100)804(100)161(59.6)718(76.5)<0.001
HTC436(46.1)0(0.0)764(100)0(0.0)804(100)0(0.0)939(100)<0.001
HFPG73(7.7)0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)270(100)939(100)<0.001
Number of events317208271624 
Incident rate of cancers (CI), per 1000 person years2.6(1.8–3.7)0.8(0.4–1.8)2.1(1.3–3.2)2.1(1.0–4.2)2.6(1.8–3.8)5.0 (3.0–8.2)2.1(1.4–3.1) 
  1. Figures are presented as mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables, and number (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. CI confidence interval, HBMI high body mass index, HFPG high fasting plasma glucose, HTC high total cholesterol, HDL-C high systolic blood pressure
  3. *P values are based on ANOVA test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables