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Table 1 Effects of endogenous low testosterone and testosterone supplementation on vascular aging and cardiovascular disease risk

From: Sex differences in vascular aging in response to testosterone

WomenEndogenous low total testosteroneTestosterone supplementation
PerimenopausalPostmenopausalPerimenopausalPostmenopausal
Cardiovascular disease risk------
Endothelial function    
 Brachial artery FMD--
 Digital peripheral artery tonomety--------
Arterial stiffness    
 Pulse wave velocity----
 Augmentation index----
 Arterial compliance----
MenEndogenous low total testosteroneTestosterone supplementation
Middle ageOlderMiddle ageOlder
Cardiovascular disease risk↑↔
Endothelial function    
 Brachial artery FMD↓↑↓↑↔↑
 Digital peripheral artery tonomety↓↑↓↑
Arterial stiffness    
 Pulse wave velocity
 Augmentation index
Arterial compliance