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Table 1 Distribution of maternal characteristics based on the presence or absence of pre-existing and gestational comorbidities

From: Age-period-cohort effects in pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases amongst primiparous women

 No pre-existing or pregnancy-associated conditions (n = 6,322,506) % (95% CI)Chronic hypertension (n = 59,730) % (95% CI)Pre-existing diabetesa (n = 13,400) % (95% CI)Pregnancy-associated hypertension (n = 368,212) % (95% CI)Gestational diabetesa (n = 89,576) % (95% CI)Eclampsia (n = 31,983) % (95% CI)
Maternal age      
 15–19
 20–24
 25–29
 30–34
 35–39
 40–44
 45–49
19.3 (19.3–19.4)
30.4 (30.4–30.5)
26.2 (26.1–26.2)
17.3 (17.3–17.4)
5.7 (5.7–5.7)
1.0 (1.0–1.0)
0.1 (0.1–0.1)
9.7 (9.5–9.9)
23.4 (23.1–23.7)
28.3 (27.9–28.6)
23.1 (22.8–23.4)
12.0 (11.8–12.3)
3.3 (3.1–3.4)
0.2 (0.2–0.3)
9.7 (9.2–10.2)
25.2 (24.5–25.9)
27.7 (26.9–28.4)
22.5 (21.8–23.2)
11.7 (11.2–12.3)
3.1 (2.8–3.4)
0.2 (0.1–0.3)
21.0 (20.8–21.1)
31.1 (31.0–31.3)
26.2 (26.1–26.4)
15.1 (15.0–15.3)
5.4 (5.3–5.5)
1.1 (1.0–1.1)
0.1 (0.1–0.1)
7.8 (7.6–7.9)
22.5 (22.2–22.8)
30.2 (29.9–30.5)
25.5 (25.2–25.8)
11.2 (11.0–11.4)
2.7 (2.6–2.8)
0.2 (0.2–0.2)
27.1 (26.7–27.6)
30.9 (30.4–31.4)
22.5 (22.1–23.0)
13.0 (12.6–13.3)
5.2 (5.0–5.5)
1.1 (1.0–1.2)
0.1 (0.1–0.1)
Maternal race      
 Non-Hispanic White
 Non-Hispanic Black
 Hispanic
 American Indian/Alaska Native
 Asian/Pacific Islander
 Other
57.4 (57.4–57.5)
12.7 (12.7–12.8)
21.0 (21.0–21.1)
0.7 (0.7–0.7)
7.0 (6.9–7.0)
1.1 (1.1–1.2)
65.2 (64.8–65.6)
21.4 (21.0–21.7)
9.0 (8.8–9.3)
0.9 (0.9–1.0)
2.8 (2.7–3.0)
0.6 (0.5–0.7)
57.6 (56.8–58.5)
17.1 (16.5–17.7)
16.8 (16.1–17.4)
1.5 (1.3–1.7)
5.7 (5.3–6.1)
1.3 (1.1–1.5)
68.3 (68.2–68.5)
15.1 (15.0–15.2)
12.5 (12.4–12.6)
1.1 (1.1–1.2)
2.4 (2.4–2.5)
0.5 (0.4–0.5)
56.6 (56.3–56.9)
10.3 (10.1–10.5)
17.5 (17.2–17.7)
0.9 (0.9–1.0)
13.5 (13.3–13.7)
1.2 (1.1–1.2)
60.1 (59.6–60.7)
20.7 (20.3–21.2)
14.5 (14.1–14.9)
1.8 (1.7–2.0)
2.4 (2.3–2.6)
0.3 (0.3–0.4)
Did not graduate high school16.8 (16.7–16.8)10.5 (10.2–10.7)13.7 (13.1–14.3)17.0 (16.9–17.1)10.8 (10.6–11.0)22.5 (22.1–23.0)
Not married47.5 (47.4–47.6)37.7 (37.3–38.1)46.1 (45.2–46.9)42.1 (41.9–42.2)36.7 (36.3–37.0)46.1 (45.6–46.7)
Current smoker17.2 (17.1–17.2)16.1 (15.9–16.4)18.5 (17.8–19.1)14.7 (14.6–14.9)15.1 (14.9–15.3)13.3 (12.9–13.6)
Gestational weight gain ≥40 lbs30.0 (29.9–30.1)28.4 (28.0–28.8)29.2 (28.430.0)40.0 (39.8–40.2)22.3 (22.0–22.6)37.4 (36.8–38.0)
Delivered via cesarean section27.6 (27.5–27.6)48.7 (48.3–49.1)60.3 (59.5–61.2)41.6 (41.4–41.7)42.4 (42.1–42.7)51.5 (51.0–52.1)
Small for gestational age infant (< 10th centile)11.5 (11.4–11.5)17.9 (17.6–18.2)10.7 (10.2–11.2)18.4 (18.3–18.6)11.5 (11.3–11.7)24.9 (24.4–25.4)
Large for gestational age infant (> 90th centile)6.8 (6.8–6.8)7.6 (7.3–7.8)18.1 (17.4–18.7)7.4 (7.3–7.5)10.0 (9.8–10.2)6.0 (5.7–6.2)
Preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks)7.4 (7.4–7.4)20.1 (19.7–20.4)23.8 (23.1–24.6)18.1 (18.0–18.3)11.6 (11.4–11.8)31.5 (31.0–32.0)
  1. aData on women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes is only available following the 2003 revision to the birth certificate