Skip to main content

Table 2 Content outline

From: Sex differences in cancer mechanisms

1. Overview of sex differences in cancer
 Table 1 Cancers with a clear sex disparity in age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 according to SEER explorer incidence data
2. Epigenetics
 2.1: Epigenetics and cancer
 2.2: Sex differences in epigenetics
 2.3: Implications for targeting epigenetics
 Fig. 1 Sex-specific epigenetic programming may contribute to differential barriers to tumorigenesis in males and females
3. Metabolism
 3.1: Metabolism and cancer
 3.2: Sex differences in metabolism
 3.3: Implications for targeting metabolism
 Fig. 2 Sex differences in metabolic pathways may contribute to sex differences in cancer development
4. p53
 4.1: p53 and cancer
 4.2 Sex differences in p53
 4.3: Implications for targeting p53
5. Cellular senescence
 5.1: Senescence and cancer
 5.2: Sex differences in senescence
 5.3: Implications for targeting senescence
 Fig. 3 Sex differences in senescence and SASP may contribute to the increasing sex disparity in cancer incidence with age
6. Immunity
 6.1: The immune system in cancer
 6.2: Sex differences in the immune system
 6.3: Implications for immunotherapy
 Fig. 4 Sex differences in immune cells affecting cancer development
7. Angiogenesis
 7.1: Angiogenesis and cancer
 7.2: Sex differences in angiogenesis
 7.3: Implications for targeting tumor angiogenesis
 Fig. 5 Sex differences in endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, circulating angiogenic factors, and sex hormones contribute to sex differences in tumor angiogenesis
8. Statistical considerations
 Fig. 6 Visualizing statistical interaction
9. Perspectives and significance