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Table 3 Placental endpoints at gestation day 21

From: Fetal growth outcomes following peri-implantation exposure of Long-Evans rats to noise and ozone differ by sex

 Placental endpointANOVAA + QA + NO3 + QO3 + N
MalesPlacental weight (mg)0.46 ± 0.010.43 ± 0.010.46 ± 0.020.45 ± 0.01
Placental efficiencyOzone8.16 ± 0.298.28 ± 0.197.52 ± 0.267.73 ± 0.17
Glucose (ng/mg)83.4 ± 4.2081.8 ± 3.8888.6 ± 2.7285.5 ± 3.71
Protein (μg/mg)Interaction72.6 ± 1.8369.3 ± 2.5365.8 ± 2.5672.9 ± 2.02
Cholesterol (ng/mg)13.6 ± 0.3812.7 ± 0.4313.1 ± 0.4812.6 ± 0.44
Triglycerides (ng/mg)11.8 ± 0.3111.6 ± 0.4212.3 ± 0.5811.4 ± 0.44
GPx activity (mIU/mg)7.46 ± 0.346.73 ± 0.317.13 ± 0.337.29 ± 0.32
SOD activity (mU/mg)Ozone6.45 ± 0.326.27 ± 0.285.91 ± 0.185.52 ± 0.26*
TAS (nmol/mg)12.7 ± 0.4912.4 ± 0.4213.1 ± 0.4312.9 ± 0.55
FemalesPlacental weight (mg)0.43 ± 0.010.43 ± 0.010.43 ± 0.010.45 ± 0.01
Placental efficiencyOzone8.12 ± 0.257.87 ± 0.197.65 ± 0.137.59 ± 0.17
Glucose (ng/mg)Interaction81.0 ± 4.2566.1 ± 2.46*82.2 ± 3.7486.6 ± 5.38
Protein (μg/mg)70.7 ± 2.3564.2 ± 1.4268.3 ± 2.1870.8 ± 2.87
Cholesterol (ng/mg)12.3 ± 0.4911.7 ± 0.3512.3 ± 0.4113.3 ± 0.45
Triglycerides (ng/mg)12.0 ± 0.5612.7 ± 0.7212.2 ± 0.5312.7 ± 0.57
GPx activity (mIU/mg)7.00 ± 0.366.03 ± 0.256.51 ± 0.266.71 ± 0.34
SOD activity (mU/mg)Noise5.19 ± 0.244.54 ± 0.225.33 ± 0.205.02 ± 0.27
TAS (nmol/mg)Ozone12.3 ± 0.5010.8 ± 0.2912.6 ± 0.3912.6 ± 0.61
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard error (n = 12/group/sex). Male placental efficiency (fetal weight/placental weight in mg) were analyzed by Dunn’s post-test. All other endpoints were normalized to sample weight and analyzed by Dunnett’s post-test within a two-way ANOVA. A significant (main) effect or interaction determined by two-way ANOVA for each endpoint is detailed in the third column. *p < 0.05 vs. A + Q group
  2. A + Q air + quiet, A + N air + noise, O3 + Q ozone + quiet, O3 + N ozone + noise, GPx glutathione peroxidase, SOD superoxide dismutase, TAS total antioxidant status