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Table 2 Comparisons between low and high Gal3BP presented for all 285 patients and for each sex

From: Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes

Variables High Gal3BP (mg/l) (≥3.3 mg/l, ≥80th percentile)
All patients (n = 285) Women (n = 124) Men (n = 161)
No Yes p valuea No Yes p valuea No Yes p value a
N 226 (79) 59 (21)   87 (70) 37 (30)   139 (86) 22 (14)  
Gender
 Women 87 (39) 37 (63) 0.001 b
 Men 139 (62) 22 (37)
Age 42 (32, 51) 41 (29, 50) 0.49 42 (31, 51) 40 (30, 48) 0.63 43 (32, 51) 46 25, 55) 0.98
Diabetes duration 21 (11, 31) 18 (11, 27) 0.093 19 (10, 29) 19 (13, 28) > 0.99 21 (13, 33) 16 (6, 26) 0.032
sCD163 (mg/l) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 0.088 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 0.15 0.4 (0.3. 0.5) 0.5 (0.3–0.6) 0.26
Galectin-3 (μg/l) 0.9 (0.6, 1.6) 1.2 (0.7, 2.1) 0.056 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 1.1 (0.5, 1.7) 0.24 0.9 (0.6, 1.9) 1.7 (0.8, 2.6) 0.035
HbA1c
 mmol/mol 61 (54, 69) 68 (58, 79) 0.004 63 (53, 71) 71 (59, 82) 0.013 61 (54, 68) 65 (55, 76) 0.20
 % 7.8 (7.1–8.4) 8.4 (7.5–9.4) 7.9 (7.0, 8.6) 8.6 (7.5, 9.6) 7.8 (7.1, 8.4) 8.1 (7.2, 9.1)
TC (mmol/l) 4.5 (4.1, 5.1) 4.7 (4.1, 5.3) 0.20 4.6 (4.1, 5.3) 4.7 (4.9, 5.4) 0.90 4.4 (4.0, 5.0) 4.8 (4.2, 5.1) 0.14
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.9 (0.6, 1.1) 1.0 (0.8, 1.6) 0.001 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.065 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 1.2 (1.0, 1.8) < 0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) 3.0 (2.4, 3.6) 0.12 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 2.9 (2.2, 3.6) 0.82 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) 3.2 (2.6, 3.6) 0.036
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 0.053 1.6 (1.4, 1.9) 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) 0.17 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) 1.3 (1.1, 1.5) 0.024
Creatine (μmol/l) 70 (63–80) 66 (53–76) 0.005 64 (56, 70) 61 (52, 69) 0.17 74 (68, 82) 72 (66, 80) 0.30
Abdominal obesity 37 (16) 10 (18) 0.84 b 25 (29) 9 (26) > 0.99 b 12 (9) 1 (5) > 0.99 b
General obesity 20 (9) 14 (25) 0.002 b 14 (16) 8 (23) 0.44 b 6 (4) 6 (27) 0.002 b
Systolic BP (mmHg) 120 (115, 130) 120 (110, 130) 0.37 120 (110, 130) 115 (110, 130) 0.57 125 (120, 130) 128 (110, 136) 0.69
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70 (70,76) 70 (65, 75) 0.48 70 (65, 75) 70 (62, 70) 0.27 70 (70, 80) 75 (70, 80) 0.19
Smoking 21 (10) 6 (11) 0.80 b 14 (16) 8 (23) 0.44 b 14 (10) 3 (15) 0.47 b
Physical inactivity 19 (9) 10 (18) 0.085 b 6 (7) 6 (18) 0.18 b 13 (10) 4 (19) 0.26 b
Depression 21 (9) 9 (15) 0.23 b 8 (9) 6 (16) 0.35 b 8 (9) 6 (16) 0.35 b
Cardiovascular complications 6 (3) 4 (7) 0.22 b 1 (1) 3 (8) 0.079 b 5 (4) 1 (4) 0.59 b
Diabetes retinopathy 162 (72) 43 (73) > 0.99 b 58 (67) 30 (81) 0.14 b 104 (75) 13 (59) 0.12 b
Foot complications 36 (16) 11 (20) 0.55 b 7 (8) 6 (18) 0.19 b 29 (22) 5 (23) > 099 b
Antidepressants 16 (7) 7 (12) 0.28 b 5 (6) 7 (19) 0.041 b 11 (8) 0 0.36 b
Antihypertensive drugs 77 (34) 19 (32) 0.88 b 22 (25) 13 (35) 0.28 b 55 (40) 6 (27) 0.35 b
Lipid lowering drugs 103 (46) 30 (51) 0.56 b 36 (41) 19 (51) 0.33 b 67 (48) 11 (50) > 0.99 b
  1. a Mann-Whitney U test unless otherwise indicated. b Fisher’s Exact test
  2. Abdominal obesity: women p >0.99b, men p >0.99b
  3. General obesity: women p=0.44b, men= 0.002b