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Table 2 Comparisons between low and high Gal3BP presented for all 285 patients and for each sex

From: Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes

VariablesHigh Gal3BP (mg/l) (≥3.3 mg/l, ≥80th percentile)
All patients (n = 285)Women (n = 124)Men (n = 161)
NoYesp valueaNoYesp valueaNoYesp value a
N226 (79)59 (21) 87 (70)37 (30) 139 (86)22 (14) 
Gender
 Women87 (39)37 (63)0.001 b
 Men139 (62)22 (37)
Age42 (32, 51)41 (29, 50)0.4942 (31, 51)40 (30, 48)0.6343 (32, 51)46 25, 55)0.98
Diabetes duration21 (11, 31)18 (11, 27)0.09319 (10, 29)19 (13, 28)> 0.9921 (13, 33)16 (6, 26)0.032
sCD163 (mg/l)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)0.5 (0.3, 0.6)0.0880.4 (0.3, 0.5)0.5 (0.3, 0.6)0.150.4 (0.3. 0.5)0.5 (0.3–0.6)0.26
Galectin-3 (μg/l)0.9 (0.6, 1.6)1.2 (0.7, 2.1)0.0560.8 (0.5, 1.4)1.1 (0.5, 1.7)0.240.9 (0.6, 1.9)1.7 (0.8, 2.6)0.035
HbA1c
 mmol/mol61 (54, 69)68 (58, 79)0.00463 (53, 71)71 (59, 82)0.01361 (54, 68)65 (55, 76)0.20
 %7.8 (7.1–8.4)8.4 (7.5–9.4)7.9 (7.0, 8.6)8.6 (7.5, 9.6)7.8 (7.1, 8.4)8.1 (7.2, 9.1)
TC (mmol/l)4.5 (4.1, 5.1)4.7 (4.1, 5.3)0.204.6 (4.1, 5.3)4.7 (4.9, 5.4)0.904.4 (4.0, 5.0)4.8 (4.2, 5.1)0.14
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.9 (0.6, 1.1)1.0 (0.8, 1.6)0.0010.8 (0.6, 1.1)1.0 (0.7, 1.5)0.0650.9 (0.7, 1.2)1.2 (1.0, 1.8)< 0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)2.8 (2.4, 3.2)3.0 (2.4, 3.6)0.122.8 (2.4, 3.3)2.9 (2.2, 3.6)0.822.8 (2.4, 3.2)3.2 (2.6, 3.6)0.036
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 (1.3, 1.8)1.4 (1.1, 1.7)0.0531.6 (1.4, 1.9)1.5 (1.2, 1.8)0.171.5 (1.2, 1.8)1.3 (1.1, 1.5)0.024
Creatine (μmol/l)70 (63–80)66 (53–76)0.00564 (56, 70)61 (52, 69)0.1774 (68, 82)72 (66, 80)0.30
Abdominal obesity37 (16)10 (18)0.84 b25 (29)9 (26)> 0.99 b12 (9)1 (5)> 0.99 b
General obesity20 (9)14 (25)0.002 b14 (16)8 (23)0.44 b6 (4)6 (27)0.002 b
Systolic BP (mmHg)120 (115, 130)120 (110, 130)0.37120 (110, 130)115 (110, 130)0.57125 (120, 130)128 (110, 136)0.69
Diastolic BP (mmHg)70 (70,76)70 (65, 75)0.4870 (65, 75)70 (62, 70)0.2770 (70, 80)75 (70, 80)0.19
Smoking21 (10)6 (11)0.80 b14 (16)8 (23)0.44 b14 (10)3 (15)0.47 b
Physical inactivity19 (9)10 (18)0.085 b6 (7)6 (18)0.18 b13 (10)4 (19)0.26 b
Depression21 (9)9 (15)0.23 b8 (9)6 (16)0.35 b8 (9)6 (16)0.35 b
Cardiovascular complications6 (3)4 (7)0.22 b1 (1)3 (8)0.079 b5 (4)1 (4)0.59 b
Diabetes retinopathy 162 (72)43 (73)> 0.99 b58 (67)30 (81)0.14 b104 (75)13 (59)0.12 b
Foot complications36 (16)11 (20)0.55 b7 (8)6 (18)0.19 b29 (22)5 (23)> 099 b
Antidepressants16 (7)7 (12)0.28 b5 (6)7 (19)0.041 b11 (8)00.36 b
Antihypertensive drugs77 (34)19 (32)0.88 b22 (25)13 (35)0.28 b55 (40)6 (27)0.35 b
Lipid lowering drugs103 (46)30 (51)0.56 b36 (41)19 (51)0.33 b67 (48)11 (50)> 0.99 b
  1. a Mann-Whitney U test unless otherwise indicated. b Fisher’s Exact test
  2. Abdominal obesity: women p >0.99b, men p >0.99b
  3. General obesity: women p=0.44b, men= 0.002b