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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, laboratory results, and sex differences between 124 women and 161 men with T1D

From: Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes

VariablesAll patientsWomenMen 
n = 285n = 124n = 161p valuea
Age (years)42 (32, 51; 18–59)41 (30, 50()43 (32, 52)0.10
Diabetes duration (years)20 (11, 30; 1–55)19 (11, 29)21 (11, 32)0.27
Gal3BP b (mg/l)2.3 (1.8, 3.1; 0.8–8.9)2.6 (1.9, 3.6)2.1 (1.6, 2.8)< 0.001
sCD163 (mg/l) c0.4 (0.3, 0.5; 0.2–1.9)0.4 (0.3, 0.6)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)0.78
Galectin-3 (μg/l)0.9 (0.6–1.7; 0.001–100)0.9 (0.5, 1.4)0.9 (0.6, 2.0)0.15
HbA1c
 mmol/mol63 (54, 71; 25–110)64 (54, 72)63 (54, 69)0.33
 %7.9 (7.1, 8.6; 4.4–12.2)8.0 (7.1, 8.7)7.9 (7.1, 8.5)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.6 (4.1, 5.1; 2.1–10.9)4.6 (4.1, 5.4)4.5 (4.0, 5.1)0.13
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.9 (0.7, 1.3; 0.1–5.9)0.8 (0.6, 1.3)0.9 (0.7, 1.3)0.32
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)2.8 (2.4, 3.3; 0.6–8.3)2.8 (2.4, 3.4)2.8 (2.4, 3.3)0.79
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 (1.3, 1.8; 0.3–2.7)1.6 (1.4, 1.9)1.4 (1.2, 1.7)0.003
Creatinine (μmol/l) d70 (62, 182; 28–182)62 (54, 70)74 (68, 82)< 0.001
Abdominal obesity e47 (17)34 (28)13 (8)< 0.001f
General obesity g34 (12)22 (18)12 (8)0.009 f
Systolic BP (mmHg)20 (110, 130; 90–160)120 (110, 130)125 (120, 130)< 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)70 (70, 76; 55–100)70 (65, 75)70 (70, 80)< 0.001
Smoking h27 (10)10 (9)17 (11)0.55 f
Physical inactivity i29 (11)12 (10)17 (11)> 0.99 f
Depression30 (10)14 (11)16 (10)0.85 f
Cardiovascular complications10 (4)4 (3)6 (4)> 0.99 f
Diabetes retinopathy j205 (72)88 (72)117 (73)0.79 f
Foot complications k47 (17)13 (11)34 (22)0.023 f
Antidepressants23 (8)12 (10)11 (7)0.39 f
Antihypertensive drugs96 (34)35 (28)61 (38)0.10 f
Lipid lowering drugs133 (47)55 (44)78 (48)0.55 f
  1. a Mann-Whitney U test unless otherwise indicated. b galectin-3 binding protein. f Fisher’s Exact test. Missing values (N) (all/women/men): c 1/1/0; d 13/6/7; e 6/3/3; g 2/2/0; h, i 17/9/8; j 2/1/1; k 12/7/5