Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics, laboratory results, and sex differences between 124 women and 161 men with T1D

From: Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes

Variables All patients Women Men  
n = 285 n = 124 n = 161 p valuea
Age (years) 42 (32, 51; 18–59) 41 (30, 50() 43 (32, 52) 0.10
Diabetes duration (years) 20 (11, 30; 1–55) 19 (11, 29) 21 (11, 32) 0.27
Gal3BP b (mg/l) 2.3 (1.8, 3.1; 0.8–8.9) 2.6 (1.9, 3.6) 2.1 (1.6, 2.8) < 0.001
sCD163 (mg/l) c 0.4 (0.3, 0.5; 0.2–1.9) 0.4 (0.3, 0.6) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 0.78
Galectin-3 (μg/l) 0.9 (0.6–1.7; 0.001–100) 0.9 (0.5, 1.4) 0.9 (0.6, 2.0) 0.15
HbA1c
 mmol/mol 63 (54, 71; 25–110) 64 (54, 72) 63 (54, 69) 0.33
 % 7.9 (7.1, 8.6; 4.4–12.2) 8.0 (7.1, 8.7) 7.9 (7.1, 8.5)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.6 (4.1, 5.1; 2.1–10.9) 4.6 (4.1, 5.4) 4.5 (4.0, 5.1) 0.13
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3; 0.1–5.9) 0.8 (0.6, 1.3) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 0.32
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3; 0.6–8.3) 2.8 (2.4, 3.4) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 0.79
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8; 0.3–2.7) 1.6 (1.4, 1.9) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 0.003
Creatinine (μmol/l) d 70 (62, 182; 28–182) 62 (54, 70) 74 (68, 82) < 0.001
Abdominal obesity e 47 (17) 34 (28) 13 (8) < 0.001f
General obesity g 34 (12) 22 (18) 12 (8) 0.009 f
Systolic BP (mmHg) 20 (110, 130; 90–160) 120 (110, 130) 125 (120, 130) < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70 (70, 76; 55–100) 70 (65, 75) 70 (70, 80) < 0.001
Smoking h 27 (10) 10 (9) 17 (11) 0.55 f
Physical inactivity i 29 (11) 12 (10) 17 (11) > 0.99 f
Depression 30 (10) 14 (11) 16 (10) 0.85 f
Cardiovascular complications 10 (4) 4 (3) 6 (4) > 0.99 f
Diabetes retinopathy j 205 (72) 88 (72) 117 (73) 0.79 f
Foot complications k 47 (17) 13 (11) 34 (22) 0.023 f
Antidepressants 23 (8) 12 (10) 11 (7) 0.39 f
Antihypertensive drugs 96 (34) 35 (28) 61 (38) 0.10 f
Lipid lowering drugs 133 (47) 55 (44) 78 (48) 0.55 f
  1. a Mann-Whitney U test unless otherwise indicated. b galectin-3 binding protein. f Fisher’s Exact test. Missing values (N) (all/women/men): c 1/1/0; d 13/6/7; e 6/3/3; g 2/2/0; h, i 17/9/8; j 2/1/1; k 12/7/5