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Table 4 Spectroscopic findings in the pACC and the cerebellum

From: Neurochemical sex differences in adult ADHD patients: an MRS study

  mADHD (n = 48) fADHD (n = 48) Robust linear regression mADHD (n = 42) fADHD (n = 42) Robust linear regression
pACC Cerebellum
Cre 8.8544 ± 1.16232 8.9506 ± 1.31720 Sex: F = 0.017, p = 0.894, pcorr = 0.894 9.3584 ± 1.01449 9.1434 ± 1.30337 Sex: F = 2.39, p = 0.115, pcorr = 0.191
Age: F = 8.305, p = 0.003*, pcorr = 0.008* Age: F = 0.237, p = 0.620, pcorr = 0.775
BDI: F = 0.851, p = 0.347, pcorr = 0.382 BDI: F = 0.914, p = 0.330, pcorr = 0.575
Sex:age: F = 6.736, p = 0.008*, pcorr = 0.033* Sex: age: F = 1.382, p = 0.231, pcorr = 0.438
t-Cho 2.3481 ± .33682 2.1581 ± .42736 Sex: F = 4.869, p = 0.025*, pcorr = 0.123 2.3634 ± 0.32890 2.2010 ± 0.35128 Sex: F = 6.054, p = 0.012*, pcorr= 0.049*
Age: F = 11.022, p < 0.001*, pcorr=0.004* Age: F = 2.818, p = 0.087, pcorr = 0.159
BDI: F = 4.278, p = 0.035*, pcorr = 0.175 BDI: F = 1.079, p = 0.290, pcorr = 0.575
Sex:age: F = 4.921, p = 0.024*, pcorr = 0.040* Sex:age: F = 1.021, p = 0.303, pcorr = 0.438
Glx 16.1562 ± 2.39563 16.1508 ± 2.49773 Sex: F = 0.486, p = 0.477, pcorr = 0.894 11.1479 ± 1.51264 10.4854 ± 2.11368 Sex: F = 5.242, p = 0.020*, pcorr = 0.049*
Age: F = 0.019, p = 0.888, pcorr = 0.888 Age: F = 3.005, p = 0.077, pcorr = 0.159
BDI: F = 0.736, p = 0.382, pcorr = 0.382 BDI: F = 0.303, p = 0.575, pcorr = 0.575
Sex:age: F = 5.933, p = 0.013*, pcorr = 0.033* Sex:age: F = 0.556, p = 0.448, pcorr = 0.448
NAA 11.2331 ± 1.82291 11.6514 ± 1.25699 Sex: F = 0.361, p = 0.541, pcorr = 0.894 8.9707 ± 0.98168 9.0642 ± 0.93218 Sex: F = 0.927, p = 0.327, pcorr = 0.408
Age: F = 3.657, p = 0.051, pcorr = 0.086 Age: F = 0.016, p = 0.897, pcorr = 0.897
BDI: F = 0.835, p = 0.352, pcorr = 0.382 BDI: F = 0.664, p = 0.406, pcorr = 0.575
Sex:age: F = 3.629, p = 0.052, pcorr = 0.065 Sex:age: F = 0.840, p = 0.350, pcorr = 0.438
mI 6.1587 ± 0.96007 6.1954 ± 0.94481 Sex: F = 0.031, p = 0.859, pcorr = 0.894 4.8784 ± 0.84957 4.7396 ± 0.82911 Sex: F = 0.413, p = 0.513, pcorr = 0.513
Age: F = 1.508, p = 0.211, pcorr = 0.264 Age: F = 2.683, p = 0.095, pcorr = 0.159
BDI: F = 2.931, p = 0.0811, pcorr = 0.203 BDI: F = 0.439, p = 0.450, pcorr = 0.575
Sex:age: F = 0.255, p = 0.607, pcorr = 0.607 Sex:age: F = 1.334, p = 0.239, pcorr = 0.438
  1. Abbreviations: mADHD male ADHD patients, fADHD female ADHD patients, pACC pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, BDI Beck depression inventory, Cre creatine, t-Cho phosphorylcholine + glycerylphosphorylcholine, Glx glutamate + glutamine, NAA N-acetylaspartate, mI myo-inositol, pcorr  corrected p values using the Benjamini-Hochberg approach
  2. *Significantly different (printed in bold)