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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria; according to [15]

From: Neurochemical sex differences in adult ADHD patients: an MRS study

Inclusion criteria
 • Subjects must speak German fluently
 • Aged 18–60 years
 • Diagnosis of ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria
 • A score of > 30 on the short version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale [47] or a clinically validated ADHD diagnosis in childhood
 • Chronic course of ADHD symptoms from childhood to adulthood
 • Subjects provided written informed consent in accordance with international guidelines according to the Helsinki Declaration and local legislation
 • Unobtrusive physical examination (including blood pressure/heart rate) without serious or uncontrolled findings
 • Lab results without clinically relevant findings (e.g., blood count, renal retention data, tests of liver function, thyroid parameters)
 • ECG and EEG without pathologically relevant results
Exclusion criteria
 • IQ < 85 according to the Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B, German version [32])
 • Schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, suicidality or self-harm, autism, motor tics, Tourette syndrome, or current eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, body mass index < 19)
 • Substance abuse or dependence in the previous 6 months before the screening. Episodic substance consumption was not an exclusion criterion. A positive drug test during screening.
 • Neurological disorders, seizures, pathological EEG results (lateral differences, lesion, epileptiform potentials), glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl, hyperlipidemia, uncontrolled arterial hypertension (according to the guidelines of the German Hypertension Society), angina pectoris, known arterial occlusive disease or other manifestation of vascular disease, known tachycardic arrhythmias, known enlarged prostate, or history of stroke
 • Medication with stimulants or ADHD-specific psychotherapy within the previous 6 months before the MRS measurement
 • Unwillingness or inability to comply with the requirements of the study protocol
 • Inability to understand the nature, significance, and scope of the study
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition; ECG electrocardiogram, EEG electroencephalography, IQ intelligence quotient