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Table 3 The influence of spousal risk factors on type 2 diabetes development; Tehran Lipid and Glucose study (TLGS) (1999–2018)

From: Sex differences in the association between spousal metabolic risk factors with incidence of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal study of the Iranian population

Spousal risk factor Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Men (n = 1833)
 BMI (kg/m2) 1.02 (1.00–1.05)* 1.02 (1.00–1.05)* 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
 Waist circumference (cm) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 SBP (mmHg) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)* 1.01 (1.00–1.01)* 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 DBP (mmHg) 1.01 (1.00–1.02)* 1.01 (1.00–1.02)* 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 TG/HDL-C 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.03 (0.96–1.11) 1.02 (0.95–1.10)
 Type 2 diabetes 1.07 (0.75–1.53) 1.06 (0.74–1.52) 1.03 (0.72–1.48) 1.05 (0.73–1.50)
Women (n = 1952)
 BMI (kg/m2) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 1.00 (0.97–1.03)
 Waist circumference (cm) 1.01 (1.00–1.02)* 1.01 (1.00–1.02)* 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 SBP (mmHg) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
 DBP (mmHg) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
 TG/HDL-C 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 0.99 (0.96–1.04) 0.99 (0.95–1.03)
 Type 2 diabetes 1.34 (1.01–1.79)* 1.33 (1.00–1.78)* 1.38 (1.03–1.84)* 1.23 (0.92–1.64)
  1. Model 1, adjusted for age
  2. Model 2, adjusted for factors in model 1 + SES
  3. Model 3, adjusted for factors in model 2 + index individual’s risk factor + FH-DM + PAL. Models including blood pressure (SBP and DBP) or lipid levels (TG/HDL-C) were further adjusted for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication, respectively
  4. Model 4, adjusted for factors in model 3 + index individual’s BMI
  5. Models including type 2 diabetes, as exposure, were adjusted for the value of index individual’s FPG
  6. *Significant results at the level of 0.05
  7. BMI body mass index, FH-DM family history of diabetes mellitus, PAL physical activity level, FPG fasting plasma glucose, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG/HDL-C triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, SES socioeconomic status defined as the highest level of educational attainment, at the couple level