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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Impaired sleep quality is associated with concurrent elevations in inflammatory markers: are post-menopausal women at greater risk?

Variables Men (n = 53) Premenopausal women (n = 38) Postmenopausal women (n = 31)
Age (years)*** 44.5 ± 11.3 37.8 ± 9.3 55.3 ± 4.5
Years of schooling 16.1 ± 3.1 16.1 ± 2.5 15.9 ± 2.6
Family income1
 < 30,000$ CDN 11 (21.6%) 6 (15.8%) 8 (25.8%)
 30,000–59,999$ 19 (37.3%) 15 (39.5%) 12 (38.7%)
 ≥ 60,000$ 21 (41.2%) 17 (44.7%) 11 (35.5%)
Health habits
 Smoking, n (%) 8 (15%) 6 (16%) 1 (3%)
 Exercise (yes/no)+ 38 (72%) 22 (58%) 26 (84%)
 Exercise (hours/week)* 4.3 ± 4.6 2.2 ± 2.8 4.1 ± 2.7
Metabolic activity
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 3.8 24.9 ± 5.2 25.4 ± 4.0
 Waist circumference (cm)* 90.2 ± 9.9 84.6 ± 13.0 83.8 ± 11.2
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)** 3.0 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.8
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)*** 1.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)** 5.2 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.8
 Fasting insulin (pmol/L) 47.9 ± 30.5 43.3 ± 21.2 48.4 ± 34.8
Ambulatory BP
 Day SBP (mmHg)** 120.1 ± 8.2 113.5 ± 9.3 116.5 ± 9.5
 Day DBP (mmHg)** 74.5 ± 6.4 69.9 ± 7.4 73.1 ± 8.0
 Night SBP (mmHg) 107.8 ± 10.5 103.7 ± 12.2 103.7 ± 10.4
 Night DBP (mmHg) 62.5 ± 8.3 59.7 ± 8.6 62.1 ± 8.7
Inflammatory markers
 CRP (mg/L) 1.1 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 2.1 1.9 ± 2.2
 TNF-α (ng/L)+ 1.3 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.3
 IL-6 (ng/L)+ 1.1 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.7
 MPO (μg/L) 53.6 ± 17.7 53.6 ± 14.1 53.6 ± 16.8
Questionnaires
 BDI-II score 6.3 ± 7.9 7.7 ± 8.0 6.6 ± 7.5
 PSQI overall score 5.6 ± 2.9 4.8 ± 2.9 6.5 ± 4.1
 PSQI > 5, n (%) 25 (47%) 15 (40%) 15 (48%)
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 interleukin-6, MPO myeloperoxidase, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  2. 1N = 120
  3. *P < 0.05
  4. **P < 0.01
  5. ***P < 0.001
  6. +P < 0.07