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Table 1 Sex differences in metabolic effects of the RAS in preclinical models

From: Sex differences in the metabolic effects of the renin-angiotensin system

RAS component Obesity Dyslipidemia Insulin sensitivity Glucose tolerance References
Angiotensinogen
 Males ↑, - [35, 36, 38,39,40, 42]
 Females - UNK - - [35, 38]
Renin
 Males [43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50]
 Females -, ↑ -, ↑ -, ↓ -, ↓ [50, 51]
Prorenin
 Males [52,53,54,55]
 Females UNK UNK UNK [56]
Angiotensin II
 Males ↑, ↓ [17, 57,58,59,60,61,62,63]
 Females UNK - [64, 65]
ACE
 Males [62, 66, 67]
 Females UNK [68, 69]
AT1 receptors
 Males -, ↑ [57, 58, 65, 70, 71]
 Females UNK [65, 72]
AT2 receptors
 Males ↑, ↓ ↓, ↑ ↓, ↑ [61, 73,74,75,76,77,78,79]
 Females - [74, 80]
Angiotensin-(1-7)
 Males [59, 81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90]
 Females UNK UNK UNK UNK  
ACE2
 Males -, ↑ [91,92,93,94,95,96,97]
 Females UNK UNK UNK UNK  
Mas receptors
 Males -, ↓ [97,98,99]
 Females - UNK UNK UNK [99]
Alamandine
 Males UNK UNK UNK UNK  
 Females UNK UNK UNK UNK  
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ACE2 angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, AT1 angiotensin II type 1, AT2 angiotensin II type 2, RAS renin-angiotensin system, ↑ increases, ↓ decreases, - neutral effects, UNK information currently unknown