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Fig. 3 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 3

From: The role of the gut microbiome in sex differences in arterial pressure

Fig. 3

Sex differences in determinants, constituents and effects of the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome in men and women diverges after puberty, which is modulated by a range of factors, including sex hormones [57, 58], diet [50, 53] and the impact of metabolic [61, 62] and inflammatory [58] states. The resultant shifts in gut microbiome signature in turn affect inflammation, metabolism and sex hormone levels and contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity, autoimmune disease, PCOS and the development of arterial stiffness. Legend: F/B, Firmicutes/Bacteroides; SCFA, short-chain fatty acids

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