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Table 4 Basal cytokine release for male and female participants

From: Sex differences in stress and immune responses during confinement in Antarctica

  IFN-γ [pg/ml] IL-10 [pg/ml] IL-2 [pg/ml] TNF [pg/ml]
female male female male female male female male
BDC 0.13 ± 0.10 4.41 ± 10.50 1.14 ± 1.57 7.71 ± 13.63 0.25 ± 0.50 0.15 ± 0.19 0.42 ± 0.48 1.07 ± 1.43
February 0.66 ± 1.78 6.09 ± 17.16 0.88 ± 1.46 11.31 ± 22.80 0.48 ± 1.09 2.87 ± 5.79 0.48 ± 1.23 2.29 ± 6.52
April 0.21 ± 0.35 6.40 ± 15.56 1.97 ± 0.91 #7.89 ± 9.24 *2.76 ± 4.21 3.01 ± 7.33 1.36 ± 1.36 1.84 ± 3.78
June 3.54 ± 7.09 9.80 ± 32.27 6.34 ± 9.57 15.73 ± 26.45 1.21 ± 2.16 2.46 ± 6.37 1.87 ± 3.32 13.20 ± 35.62
August 3.65 ± 7.19 7.54 ± 22.55 2.45 ± 1.34 16.81 ± 28.51 0.76 ± 0.99 2.60 ± 5.65 1.25 ± 1.0 3.73 ± 10.78
October 5.15 ± 8.20 5.68 ± 13.51 2.56 ± 1.55 10.91 ± 18.62 0.98 ± 1.90 3.07 ± 6.28 1.08 ± 0.88 2.30 ± 5.56
PDC 0.10 ± 0 12.73 ± 49.98 2.77 ± 1.34 18.94 ± 34.38 0.33 ± 0.72 1.76 ± 5.19 1.24 ± 0.91 8.80 ± 30.89
  1. Data are mean ± SD; units are pg/ml; IL-2: female n = 9-10; male n = 15-16; IL-10: female n = 5-6; male n = 10-11 ;TNF: female n = 9-10; male n = 15-16; IFN-γ: female n = 9-10; male n = 14-16; BDC = Baseline Data Collection; PDC = Post Data Collection; IL = interleukin; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; IFN-γ = interferon γ; # significant difference between male and female (p = 0.037); * significant difference to BDC in females (p = 0.017)