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Table 1 Sex differences in circuit function and the influence of sex hormones

From: Hormonal regulation of circuit function: sex, systems and depression

Study Species Major findings
Beaumont et al. [9] Adult humans Women had less power asymmetry between hemispheres during spatial and verbal tasks, a lower degree of cortical specialization of functions, and larger interhemispheric coherence, compared to men.
Corsi-Cabrera et al. [10] Adult humans Men had a negative correlation between interhemispheric coherence and an aptitude test score for verbal, spatial, and abstract reasoning, while women had a positive correlation.
Corsi-Cabrera et al. [11] Adult humans Women had greater interparietal coherence across all frequency bands and higher global alpha relative power, while men had higher global beta relative power and greater beta relative power in the left over the right parietal region.
Juarez and Corsi-Cabrera [15] Adult Wistar rats Interhemispheric theta coherence and global theta relative power were greater in males. Males showed greater interhemispheric delta and alpha coherences, while females had greater global delta and beta relative power.
Juarez et al. [16] Adult Wistar rats Males had greater cortical asymmetry and higher right over left parietal coupling than females. Interhemispheric coherence in delta and theta bands was greater in males. Females had a greater global delta and beta relative power and a lower global theta relative power, compared to males.
Corsi-Cabrera et al. [17] Adult Wistar rats pre- or postnatally virilized Postnatally GNX males had increased global beta relative power. Prenatal TP treatment abolished sex differences and increased the absolute power of all frequency bands, except beta, in both sexes, as well as enhanced theta absolute power, reduced beta relative power, and increased interparietal coherence in females. Postnatal TP treatment increased beta power and decreased interparietal coherence in females.
Del Rio-Portilla et al. [18] Adult GNX Wistar rats GNX abolished baseline sex differences and induced higher overall absolute power in males than females. Hormonal treatment re-established the interparietal asymmetry in both sexes and the lack of sex differences in absolute power. Hormonal treatment did not re-establish sex differences in interhemispheric coherence or relative delta and theta power.
Fernandez-Guasti et al. [22] Adult intact or neonatally virilized Wistar rats Progesterone increased absolute alpha and beta powers and the interparietal alpha correlation in both intact and virilized males. Progesterone reduced the interparietal theta and alpha correlations in both intact and virilized females.
  1. GNX gonadectomized