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Table 1 Sex differences in cardiovascular structural remodeling

From: Sex-specific influence on cardiac structural remodeling and therapy in cardiovascular disease

  Myocardial infarction Hypertension/aortic stenosis/PO Pulmonary hypertension/COPD HCM/DCM ACM
Prevalence M > F in all age groups [9, 18] F < M pre-menopausal, F > M post-menopausal [14, 31] F > M Pulmonary hypertension [86] F > M COPD [17] M > F in all age groups [18] M > F in all age groups [18]
Mortality M = F [3, 9] depending on age [3] M > F [1] M > F in all age groups [18] M > F in all age groups [18]
Hypertrophy M > F [21, 44] M: eccentric F: concentric [1, 14, 22, 25] M > F [38, 39] M > F [69, 87] M > F [18]
Inflammation M > F [48] M > F [34] M > F [88] M > F [69, 89] Sex unmentioned [90]
Fibrosis M > F and M larger infarct size [44] M > F [14, 34, 63] M > F [67] M > F [69] No significant differences in fibro-fatty replacement [71]
Apoptosis M > F and M larger infarct size [62] M > F [64] M > F [67] M > F [69] M > F in iPS cells [72]
  1. Abbreviations: F = female; M = male; ACM = arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy; HCM = hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; PO = pressure overload